Last Name


TitleInterim Chair
InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
DepartmentDepartment of Molecular Virology & Microbiology
DivisionMolecular Virology & Microbiology
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
    DepartmentDepartment of Molecular Virology & Microbiology
    DivisionMolecular Virology & Microbiology

    InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
    DepartmentDepartment of Ophthalmology

    InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
    DepartmentHuman Genome Sequencing Center
    DivisionHuman Genome Sequencing Center

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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse awards and honors
    2013 - 2014Honoree of Houston Men of Distinction, Houston Men of Distinction
    2012 - 2014ASM Distinguished Lecturer, American Society for Microbiology
    2005 - 2007Career Development Award, Western Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Disease
    2000 - 2003Breast Cancer Initiative Postdoctoral Fellowship, United States Army Materiel Command
    2000Postdoctoral Fellowship (declined), American Cancer Society
    2000National Research Service Award Postdoctoral Fellowship (declined), National Institutes of Health
    1999Postdoctoral Genetics Training Grant Appointee, National Institutes of Health
    1997Honorable Mention, S.E. Sulkin Award for Clinical and Applied Microbiology, American Society for Microbiology-Texas Branch

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Within the body of a healthy adult, microbial cells are estimated to outnumber human cells by a factor of ten to one. The total number of genes in the human microbiome may exceed the total number of human genes by a factor of 100 to 1. These microbial communities comprise what has come to be known as the ‘human microbiome’. Until recently, the human microbiome has been largely unstudied, leaving its influence upon human health largely unknown. Traditional microbiology has focused on the study of individual isolated species, with most organisms (>80%) having never been successfully cultured. However, advances in DNA sequencing technologies have created the ability to examine microbial communities, including uncultivable organisms. These advances have led to ‘metagenomic’ approaches that allow the analysis of genetic material derived from complete microbial communities harvested from natural environments, thus facilitating the study of the human microbiome as well as the microbiomes of other animals and environmental niches.

    To take advantage of these recent technological advances, the NIH Roadmap Office/Common Fund initiated the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) in 2006 with the mission of generating resources enabling characterization of the human microbiota and analysis of its role in human health and disease. As a Primary Investigator in the HMP, and in directing a number of other microbiome projects, my interests are focused on developing and implementing measures to sample and analyze microbial communities from niches on and in the human body and related animal models for the understanding of how commensal organisms impact health and disease.

    Knowledge of how the microbiota impact and/or respond to various states of health and illness is vital for the development of treatments that can diagnose, treat and/or eliminate heritable or infectious disease. For example, microbiome-associated diagnostics may be more sensitive for detecting certain diseases and/or predicting susceptibility to others so that appropriate precautions can be made (e.g., taking a probiotic or antibiotic when traveling when it’s known that an individual is highly susceptible to travelers’ diarrhea or Norwalk virus infection).

    Since the onset of the HMP, we along with collaborators in the Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology (MVM) and the Human Genome Sequencing Center have been pursuing diverse projects in metagenomics and microbiome research. In 2011 I established the Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research (CMMR) at BCM to maintain our position as leaders in this field, and to further develop and expand the infrastructure and expertise that will propel microbiome research in the future with the following mission foci:

    Support existing metagenomic research programs that are ongoing at BCM and affiliated institutions

    Provide support for investigators/clinical collaborators who have ideal model systems for metagenomics but who do not know where to begin such studies.

    Expand metagenomic research into animal and molecular model systems so that hypothesis-driven research could be initiated and supported.

    Provide a critical mass in bioinformatic expertise for analyzing and providing statistical support for metagenomic data.

    Translate novel discoveries from microbiome studies to effective clinical therapeutics and diagnostics.

    Among the largest of the more than 250 projects we are engaging/have engaged with over 120 collaborating groups from around the world during the past 4 years is a comprehensive microbiome analysis supporting the NIDDK-funded TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) Project. The goal of this study is to identify microbial associations and triggers that may underlie the onset of type 1 diabetes. This knowledge will hopefully lead to better diagnostics, interventions, and perhaps even a cure, for juvenile diabetes.

    Other collaborations with researchers at BCM and other area institutions have led to a number of ongoing lucrative projects, some of which have been highlighted elsewhere in the BCM and national spotlight. We anticipate these studies will produce results that may translate directly into therapeutics and diagnostics that impact human health. Among these are projects with Drs. Danny Jones and Stephen Pflugfelder, Department of Ophthalmology, studying the ocular surface microbiome associated with health and disease, Dr. James Versalovic, Department of Pathology, TCH Microbiome Center, focusing on microbiome associations to pediatric bowel pain, Dr. Kjersti Aagaard, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, on microbiome associations to pre-term birth, Drs. Herbert DuPont and David Graham, Department of Medicine, examining microbiota associations with gastrointestinal disease and treatment with fecal transplants and defined microbial communities. Each of these projects has posed unique study design and technology challenges that CMMR staff and collaborators are addressing to generate provocative results that will hopefully benefit human health in the near future.


    Independent from our research on the human microbiome, we are also actively studying the biodefense concern, Francisella tularensis.

    The facultative intracellular pathogen, Francisella tularensis, is the causative agent of tularemia, and is among the most infectious pathogens known, both in terms of the number of zoonotic species it infects (>250), and the number of organisms needed to establish a potentially lethal infection (<10 by the airborne route). F. tularensis is a Category A biodefense agent because of its ability to cause incapacitating, potentially fatal, illness, its ability to spread via aerosolization, and for the potential burden it would have on the public health system in the event of an outbreak. There are four subspecies of Francisella tularensis: subspecies tularensis (Type A), subspecies holarctica (Type B), subspecies novicida, and subspecies mediasiatica. Type A, found exclusively in North America and Mexico, causes the most severe form of human disease, while Type B is less pathogenic in humans and is found throughout the northern hemisphere. Several decades ago, in the former Soviet Union, an attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS) was derived from repeated passage of a Type B strain. LVS offers protection against both Type A and Type B infection, but is not licensed for use in the U.S. because it’s immunogenicity in humans is poorly characterized, the mechanism of attenuation for this strain is unknown, and the strain kills mice with a LD50 of one bacterium when injected intraperitoneally.

    Using state-of-the-art technologies and resources in the Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center, we are determining the genomic sequences of multiple F. tularensis strains. Comparisons of Type A, Type B, LVS, and other Francisella sequences are highlighting genetic differences that will answer the following questions:

    Why are Type A Francisella strains more virulent than Type B strains?

    How are Francisella subspecies evolutionarily related?

    What makes Francisella so pathogenic in the absence of an obvious toxin?

    What genes mediate robust replication of Francisella in macrophages?

    What mutations attenuate LVS?

    What mutations are capable of rationally attenuating pathogenic strains?

    Isogenic Francisella mutant strains will be constructed subsequently to test the roles of candidate alleles in strain attenuation and host specificity. These studies will reveal the pathogenicity mechanisms of one of the most virulent bacteria known and will further the development of improved attenuated vaccines and immunodiagnostics targeted against Francisella.

    Functional genomics approaches are being used to identify proteins important for F. tularensis recognition by the host immune response. With our collaborators, we are using the recombination-based, Gateway system (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) to clone and express approximately 2000 open reading frames (ORFs) belonging to the Type A and Type B Francisella subspecies. This strategy permits the rapid conversion of the original plasmid clone set to other functional vectors containing various promoters or tag sequences. Through further collaboration with the BCM Vaccine Treatment and Evaluation Unit (VTEU) we are using this clone set, along with the shotgun library constructed to sequence the Francisella genome, to systematically identify F. tularensis proteins recognized by the human humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Results from this work will further characterize the human response to LVS vaccination and will lead to the development of novel F. tularensis vaccines and immunodiagnostics.

    The approaches outlined here are being adapted for additional functional genomics studies in other biodefense and emerging and infectious disease concerns to advance vaccine and diagnostic discovery in these organisms.

    Collapse keywords
    Microbiome, Metagenomics, Commensal microbes, Virome, Francisella, Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research, Metanome

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Lai PS, Allen JG, Hutchinson DS, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Winters T, Hug C, Wartenberg GR, Vallarino J, Christiani DC. Impact of environmental microbiota on human microbiota of workers in academic mouse research facilities: An observational study. PLoS One. 2017; 12(7):e0180969. PMID: 28704437.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Stewart CJ, Embleton ND, Marrs ECL, Smith DP, Fofanova T, Nelson A, Skeath T, Perry JD, Petrosino JF, Berrington JE, Cummings SP. Longitudinal development of the gut microbiome and metabolome in preterm neonates with late onset sepsis and healthy controls. Microbiome. 2017 Jul 12; 5(1):75. PMID: 28701177.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Stewart CJ, Embleton ND, Clements E, Luna PN, Smith DP, Fofanova TY, Nelson A, Taylor G, Orr CH, Petrosino JF, Berrington JE, Cummings SP. Cesarean or Vaginal Birth Does Not Impact the Longitudinal Development of the Gut Microbiome in a Cohort of Exclusively Preterm Infants. Front Microbiol. 2017; 8:1008. PMID: 28634475.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Stewart CJ, Mansbach JM, Wong MC, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Camargo CA, Hasegawa K. Associations of Nasopharyngeal Metabolome and Microbiome with Severity Among Infants with Bronchiolitis: A Multi-omic Analysis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 May 21. PMID: 28530140.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Hasegawa K, Mansbach JM, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Freishtat RJ, Teach SJ, Piedra PA, Camargo CA. The relationship between nasopharyngeal CCL5 and microbiota on disease severity among infants with bronchiolitis. Allergy. 2017 Mar 17. PMID: 28306146.
      View in: PubMed
    6. D'Amico L, Ajami NJ, Adachi JA, Gascoyne PR, Petrosino JF. Isolation and concentration of bacteria from blood using microfluidic membraneless dialysis and dielectrophoresis. Lab Chip. 2017 Mar 09. PMID: 28276545.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Robinson A, Fiechtner L, Roche B, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Camargo CA, Taveras EM, Hasegawa K. Association of Maternal Gestational Weight Gain With the Infant Fecal Microbiota. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Mar 07. PMID: 28272161.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Jiang ZD, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Jun G, Hanis CL, Shah M, Hochman L, Ankoma-Sey V, DuPont AW, Wong MC, Alexander A, Ke S, DuPont HL. Randomised clinical trial: faecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridum difficile infection - fresh, or frozen, or lyophilised microbiota from a small pool of healthy donors delivered by colonoscopy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Feb 21. PMID: 28220514.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Viladomiu M, Kivolowitz C, Abdulhamid A, Dogan B, Victorio D, Castellanos JG, Woo V, Teng F, Tran NL, Sczesnak A, Chai C, Kim M, Diehl GE, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Zhou XK, Schwartzman S, Mandl LA, Abramowitz M, Jacob V, Bosworth B, Steinlauf A, Scherl EJ, Wu HJ, Simpson KW, Longman RS. IgA-coated E. coli enriched in Crohn's disease spondyloarthritis promote TH17-dependent inflammation. Sci Transl Med. 2017 Feb 08; 9(376). PMID: 28179509.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Kelly PH, Bahr SM, Serafim TD, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Meneses C, Kirby JR, Valenzuela JG, Kamhawi S, Wilson ME. The Gut Microbiome of the Vector Lutzomyia longipalpis Is Essential for Survival of Leishmania infantum. MBio. 2017 Jan 17; 8(1). PMID: 28096483.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Zárate-Bladés CR, Horai R, Mattapallil MJ, Ajami NJ, Wong M, Petrosino JF, Itoh K, Chan CC, Caspi RR. Gut microbiota as a source of a surrogate antigen that triggers autoimmunity in an immune privileged site. Gut Microbes. 2017 Jan 03; 1-8. PMID: 28045579.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Zhang H, Zhao F, Hutchinson DS, Sun W, Ajami NJ, Lai S, Wong MC, Petrosino JF, Fang J, Jiang J, Chen W, Reinach PS, Qu J, Zeng C, Zhang D, Zhou X. Conjunctival Microbiome Changes Associated With Soft Contact Lens and Orthokeratology Lens Wearing. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 Jan 01; 58(1):128-136. PMID: 28114568.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Stewart CJ, Embleton ND, Marrs EC, Smith DP, Nelson A, Abdulkadir B, Skeath T, Petrosino JF, Perry JD, Berrington JE, Cummings SP. Temporal bacterial and metabolic development of the preterm gut reveals specific signatures in health and disease. Microbiome. 2016 Dec 29; 4(1):67. PMID: 28034304.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Adnan S, Nelson JW, Ajami NJ, Venna VR, Petrosino JF, Bryan RM, Durgan DJ. Alterations in the gut microbiota can elicit hypertension in rats. Physiol Genomics. 2016 Dec 23; physiolgenomics.00081.2016. PMID: 28011881.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Hasegawa K, Linnemann RW, Mansbach JM, Ajami NJ, Espinola JA, Petrosino JF, Piedra PA, Stevenson MD, Sullivan AF, Thompson AD, Camargo CA. Nasal Airway Microbiota Profile and Severe Bronchiolitis in Infants: A Case-Control Study. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016 Dec 21. PMID: 28005692.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Hasegawa K, Mansbach JM, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Freishtat RJ, Teach SJ, Piedra PA, Camargo CA. Serum cathelicidin, nasopharyngeal microbiota, and disease severity among infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Nov 12. PMID: 27845236.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Santos-Cortez RL, Hutchinson DS, Ajami NJ, Reyes-Quintos MR, Tantoco ML, Labra PJ, Lagrana SM, Pedro M, Llanes EG, Gloria-Cruz TL, Chan AL, Cutiongco-de la Paz EM, Belmont JW, Chonmaitree T, Abes GT, Petrosino JF, Leal SM, Chiong CM. Middle ear microbiome differences in indigenous Filipinos with chronic otitis media due to a duplication in the A2ML1 gene. Infect Dis Poverty. 2016 Nov 01; 5(1):97. PMID: 27799062.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Hasegawa K, Mansbach JM, Ajami NJ, Espinola JA, Henke DM, Petrosino JF, Piedra PA, Shaw CA, Sullivan AF, Camargo CA. Association of nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles with bronchiolitis severity in infants hospitalised for bronchiolitis. Eur Respir J. 2016 Nov; 48(5):1329-1339. PMID: 27799386.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Aghazadeh A, Lin AY, Sheikh MA, Chen AL, Atkins LM, Johnson CL, Petrosino JF, Drezek RA, Baraniuk RG. Universal microbial diagnostics using random DNA probes. Sci Adv. 2016 Sep; 2(9):e1600025. PMID: 27704040.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Hasegawa K, Linnemann RW, Mansbach JM, Ajami NJ, Espinola JA, Fiechtner LG, Petrosino JF, Camargo CA. Household siblings and nasal and fecal microbiota in infants. Pediatr Int. 2016 Sep 16. PMID: 27638139.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Shakhsheer BA, Versten LA, Luo JN, Defazio JR, Klabbers R, Christley S, Zaborin A, Guyton KL, Krezalek M, Smith DP, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Fleming ID, Belogortseva N, Zaborina O, Alverdy JC. Morphine Promotes Colonization of Anastomotic Tissues with Collagenase - Producing Enterococcus faecalis and Causes Leak. J Gastrointest Surg. 2016 Oct; 20(10):1744-51. PMID: 27530446.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Kelly TN, Bazzano LA, Ajami NJ, He H, Zhao J, Petrosino JF, Correa A, He J. Gut Microbiome Associates With Lifetime Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile Among Bogalusa Heart Study Participants. Circ Res. 2016 Sep 30; 119(8):956-64. PMID: 27507222.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Rothenberg SE, Anders M, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Balogh E. Water management impacts rice methylmercury and the soil microbiome. Sci Total Environ. 2016 Dec 01; 572:608-617. PMID: 27450246.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Hasegawa K, Linnemann RW, Mansbach JM, Ajami NJ, Espinola JA, Petrosino JF, Piedra PA, Stevenson MD, Sullivan AF, Thompson AD, Camargo CA. The Fecal Microbiota Profile and Bronchiolitis in Infants. Pediatrics. 2016 Jul; 138(1). PMID: 27354456; PMCID: PMC4925084 [Available on 07/01/17].
    25. Buffington SA, Di Prisco GV, Auchtung TA, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Costa-Mattioli M. Microbial Reconstitution Reverses Maternal Diet-Induced Social and Synaptic Deficits in Offspring. Cell. 2016 Jun 16; 165(7):1762-75. PMID: 27315483.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Galloway-Peña JR, Smith DP, Sahasrabhojane P, Ajami NJ, Wadsworth WD, Daver NG, Chemaly RF, Marsh L, Ghantoji SS, Pemmaraju N, Garcia-Manero G, Rezvani K, Alousi AM, Wargo JA, Shpall EJ, Futreal PA, Guindani M, Petrosino JF, Kontoyiannis DP, Shelburne SA. The role of the gastrointestinal microbiome in infectious complications during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer. 2016 Jul 15; 122(14):2186-96. PMID: 27142181.
      View in: PubMed
    27. de Paiva CS, Jones DB, Stern ME, Bian F, Moore QL, Corbiere S, Streckfus CF, Hutchinson DS, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Pflugfelder SC. Altered Mucosal Microbiome Diversity and Disease Severity in Sjögren Syndrome. Sci Rep. 2016; 6:23561. PMID: 27087247; PMCID: PMC4834578.
    28. Petrosyan V, Holder M, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Sahasrabhojane P, Thompson EJ, Kalia A, Shelburne SA. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus mitis Strain SVGS_061 Isolated from a Neutropenic Patient with Viridans Group Streptococcal Shock Syndrome. Genome Announc. 2016; 4(2). PMID: 27056234; PMCID: PMC4824267.
    29. Preidis GA, Ajami NJ, Wong MC, Bessard BC, Conner ME, Petrosino JF. Microbial-Derived Metabolites Reflect an Altered Intestinal Microbiota during Catch-Up Growth in Undernourished Neonatal Mice. J Nutr. 2016 Apr 6. PMID: 27052538.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Mansbach JM, Hasegawa K, Henke DM, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Shaw CA, Piedra PA, Sullivan AF, Espinola JA, Camargo CA. Respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus severe bronchiolitis are associated with distinct nasopharyngeal microbiota. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Jun; 137(6):1909-1913.e4. PMID: 27061249; PMCID: PMC4899255 [Available on 06/01/17].
    31. Kirpich IA, Petrosino J, Ajami N, Feng W, Wang Y, Liu Y, Beier JI, Barve SS, Yin X, Wei X, Zhang X, McClain CJ. Saturated and Unsaturated Dietary Fats Differentially Modulate Ethanol-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiome and Metabolome in a Mouse Model of Alcoholic Liver Disease. Am J Pathol. 2016 Apr; 186(4):765-76. PMID: 27012191.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Auchtung TA, Holder ME, Gesell JR, Ajami NJ, Duarte RT, Itoh K, Caspi RR, Petrosino JF, Horai R, Zárate-Bladés CR. Complete Genome Sequence of Turicibacter sp. Strain H121, Isolated from the Feces of a Contaminated Germ-Free Mouse. Genome Announc. 2016; 4(2). PMID: 27013036; PMCID: PMC4807225.
    33. Fofanova TY, Petrosino JF, Kellermayer R. Microbiome-Epigenome Interactions and the Environmental Origins of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 Feb; 62(2):208-19. PMID: 26308318.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Durgan DJ, Ganesh BP, Cope JL, Ajami NJ, Phillips SC, Petrosino JF, Hollister EB, Bryan RM. Role of the Gut Microbiome in Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Induced Hypertension. Hypertension. 2016 Feb; 67(2):469-74. PMID: 26711739.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Metcalf JL, Xu ZZ, Weiss S, Lax S, Van Treuren W, Hyde ER, Song SJ, Amir A, Larsen P, Sangwan N, Haarmann D, Humphrey GC, Ackermann G, Thompson LR, Lauber C, Bibat A, Nicholas C, Gebert MJ, Petrosino JF, Reed SC, Gilbert JA, Lynne AM, Bucheli SR, Carter DO, Knight R. Microbial community assembly and metabolic function during mammalian corpse decomposition. Science. 2016 Jan 8; 351(6269):158-62. PMID: 26657285.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Shelburne SA, Ajami NJ, Chibucos MC, Beird HC, Tarrand J, Galloway-Peña J, Albert N, Chemaly RF, Ghantoji SS, Marsh L, Pemmaraju N, Andreeff M, Shpall EJ, Wargo JA, Rezvani K, Alousi A, Bruno VM, Futreal PA, Petrosino JF, Kontoyiannis DP. Implementation of a Pan-Genomic Approach to Investigate Holobiont-Infecting Microbe Interaction: A Case Report of a Leukemic Patient with Invasive Mucormycosis. PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0139851. PMID: 26556047.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Kubinak JL, Stephens WZ, Soto R, Petersen C, Chiaro T, Gogokhia L, Bell R, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Morrison L, Potts WK, Jensen PE, O'Connell RM, Round JL. MHC variation sculpts individualized microbial communities that control susceptibility to enteric infection. Nat Commun. 2015; 6:8642. PMID: 26494419.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Carlson JM, Hyde ER, Petrosino JF, Manage AB, Primm TP. The host effects of Gambusia affinis with an antibiotic-disrupted microbiome. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Dec; 178:163-8. PMID: 26475244.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Runtsch MC, Hu R, Alexander M, Wallace J, Kagele D, Petersen C, Valentine JF, Welker NC, Bronner MP, Chen X, Smith DP, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF, Round JL, O'Connell RM. MicroRNA-146a constrains multiple parameters of intestinal immunity and increases susceptibility to DSS colitis. Oncotarget. 2015 Oct 6; 6(30):28556-72. PMID: 26456940.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Zanvit P, Konkel JE, Jiao X, Kasagi S, Zhang D, Wu R, Chia C, Ajami NJ, Smith DP, Petrosino JF, Abbatiello B, Nakatsukasa H, Chen Q, Belkaid Y, Chen ZJ, Chen W. Antibiotics in neonatal life increase murine susceptibility to experimental psoriasis. Nat Commun. 2015; 6:8424. PMID: 26416167.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Hollister EB, Riehle K, Luna RA, Weidler EM, Rubio-Gonzales M, Mistretta TA, Raza S, Doddapaneni HV, Metcalf GA, Muzny DM, Gibbs RA, Petrosino JF, Shulman RJ, Versalovic J. Structure and function of the healthy pre-adolescent pediatric gut microbiome. Microbiome. 2015; 3:36. PMID: 26306392.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Atkins LM, Holder ME, Ajami NJ, Metcalf GA, Weissenberger GM, Wang M, Vee V, Han Y, Muzny DM, Gibbs RA, Petrosino JF. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica Strain OR96-0246. Genome Announc. 2015; 3(4). PMID: 26272574.
      View in: PubMed
    43. He B, Nohara K, Ajami NJ, Michalek RD, Tian X, Wong M, Losee-Olson SH, Petrosino JF, Yoo SH, Shimomura K, Chen Z. Transmissible microbial and metabolomic remodeling by soluble dietary fiber improves metabolic homeostasis. Sci Rep. 2015; 5:10604. PMID: 26040234.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Green SI, Ajami NJ, Ma L, Poole NM, Price RE, Petrosino JF, Maresso AW. Murine model of chemotherapy-induced extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli translocation. Infect Immun. 2015 Aug; 83(8):3243-56. PMID: 26034214.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Preidis GA, Ajami NJ, Wong MC, Bessard BC, Conner ME, Petrosino JF. Composition and function of the undernourished neonatal mouse intestinal microbiome. J Nutr Biochem. 2015 May 15. PMID: 26070414.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Flores AR, Galloway-Peña J, Sahasrabhojane P, Saldaña M, Yao H, Su X, Ajami NJ, Holder ME, Petrosino JF, Thompson E, Margarit Y Ros I, Rosini R, Grandi G, Horstmann N, Teatero S, McGeer A, Fittipaldi N, Rappuoli R, Baker CJ, Shelburne SA. Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May 19; 112(20):6431-6. PMID: 25941374.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Massey VL, Stocke KS, Schmidt RH, Tan M, Ajami N, Neal RE, Petrosino JF, Barve S, Arteel GE. Oligofructose protects against arsenic-induced liver injury in a model of environment/obesity interaction. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015 May 1; 284(3):304-14. PMID: 25759243; PMCID: PMC4515777.
    48. Ross MC, Muzny DM, McCormick JB, Gibbs RA, Fisher-Hoch SP, Petrosino JF. 16S gut community of the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort. Microbiome. 2015; 3:7. PMID: 25763184; PMCID: PMC4355967.
    49. Ajami NJ, Hutchinson DS, Petrosino JF. Opinion Paper: Promise and Pragmatism in Clinical Microbiome Research. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2015; 16(3):222-4. PMID: 26202196.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Youmans BP, Ajami NJ, Jiang ZD, Campbell F, Wadsworth WD, Petrosino JF, DuPont HL, Highlander SK. Characterization of the human gut microbiome during travelers' diarrhea. Gut Microbes. 2015; 6(2):110-9. PMID: 25695334; PMCID: PMC4615231.
    51. Hyde ER, Haarmann DP, Petrosino JF, Lynne AM, Bucheli SR. Initial insights into bacterial succession during human decomposition. Int J Legal Med. 2015 May; 129(3):661-71. PMID: 25431049.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Hyde ER, Luk B, Cron S, Kusic L, McCue T, Bauch T, Kaplan H, Tribble G, Petrosino JF, Bryan NS. Characterization of the rat oral microbiome and the effects of dietary nitrate. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014 Dec; 77:249-57. PMID: 25305639.
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    53. Schloss PD, Iverson KD, Petrosino JF, Schloss SJ. The dynamics of a family's gut microbiota reveal variations on a theme. Microbiome. 2014; 2:25. PMID: 25061514; PMCID: PMC4109379.
    54. Aagaard K, Ma J, Antony KM, Ganu R, Petrosino J, Versalovic J. The placenta harbors a unique microbiome. Sci Transl Med. 2014 May 21; 6(237):237ra65. PMID: 24848255.
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    55. Hyde ER, Andrade F, Vaksman Z, Parthasarathy K, Jiang H, Parthasarathy DK, Torregrossa AC, Tribble G, Kaplan HB, Petrosino JF, Bryan NS. Metagenomic analysis of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity: implications for nitric oxide homeostasis. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e88645. PMID: 24670812; PMCID: PMC3966736.
    56. Mejía-León ME, Petrosino JF, Ajami NJ, Domínguez-Bello MG, de la Barca AM. Fecal microbiota imbalance in Mexican children with type 1 diabetes. Sci Rep. 2014; 4:3814. PMID: 24448554; PMCID: PMC3898044.
    57. Marino S, Baxter NT, Huffnagle GB, Petrosino JF, Schloss PD. Mathematical modeling of primary succession of murine intestinal microbiota. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jan 7; 111(1):439-44. PMID: 24367073; PMCID: PMC3890833.
    58. Hyde ER, Petrosino JF, Piedra PA, Camargo CA, Espinola JA, Mansbach JM. Nasopharyngeal Proteobacteria are associated with viral etiology and acute wheezing in children with severe bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Apr; 133(4):1220-2. PMID: 24365140; PMCID: PMC3972371.
    59. Hsiao EY, McBride SW, Hsien S, Sharon G, Hyde ER, McCue T, Codelli JA, Chow J, Reisman SE, Petrosino JF, Patterson PH, Mazmanian SK. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Cell. 2013 Dec 19; 155(7):1451-63. PMID: 24315484; PMCID: PMC3897394.
    60. Zackular JP, Baxter NT, Iverson KD, Sadler WD, Petrosino JF, Chen GY, Schloss PD. The gut microbiome modulates colon tumorigenesis. MBio. 2013; 4(6):e00692-13. PMID: 24194538; PMCID: PMC3892781.
    61. Youmans BP, Ajami NJ, Jiang ZD, Petrosino JF, DuPont HL, Highlander SK. Development and accuracy of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for detection and quantification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat labile and heat stable toxin genes in travelers' diarrhea samples. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Jan; 90(1):124-32. PMID: 24189361; PMCID: PMC3886408.
    62. Amirian ES, Petrosino JF, Ajami NJ, Liu Y, Mims MP, Scheurer ME. Potential role of gastrointestinal microbiota composition in prostate cancer risk. Infect Agent Cancer. 2013; 8(1):42. PMID: 24180596; PMCID: PMC3826836.
    63. Hyde ER, Haarmann DP, Lynne AM, Bucheli SR, Petrosino JF. The living dead: bacterial community structure of a cadaver at the onset and end of the bloat stage of decomposition. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77733. PMID: 24204941; PMCID: PMC3813760.
    64. Vehik K, Ajami NJ, Hadley D, Petrosino JF, Burkhardt BR. The changing landscape of type 1 diabetes: recent developments and future frontiers. Curr Diab Rep. 2013 Oct; 13(5):642-50. PMID: 23912764; PMCID: PMC3827778.
    65. Carmody LA, Zhao J, Schloss PD, Petrosino JF, Murray S, Young VB, Li JZ, LiPuma JJ. Changes in cystic fibrosis airway microbiota at pulmonary exacerbation. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2013 Jun; 10(3):179-87. PMID: 23802813; PMCID: PMC3960905.
    66. Nagy-Szakal D, Mir SA, Ross MC, Tatevian N, Petrosino JF, Kellermayer R. Monotonous diets protect against acute colitis in mice: epidemiologic and therapeutic implications. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 May; 56(5):544-50. PMID: 23085891; PMCID: PMC4030530.
    67. Ling PD, Reid JG, Qin X, Muzny DM, Gibbs R, Petrosino J, Peng R, Zong JC, Heaggans SY, Hayward GS. Complete Genome Sequence of Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus 1A. Genome Announc. 2013 Mar-Apr; 1(2):e0010613. PMID: 23580705; PMCID: PMC3624679.
    68. Nelson AM, Elftman MD, Pinto AK, Baldridge M, Hooper P, Kuczynski J, Petrosino JF, Young VB, Wobus CE. Murine norovirus infection does not cause major disruptions in the murine intestinal microbiota. Microbiome. 2013; 1(1):7. PMID: 24451302; PMCID: PMC4177540.
    69. Bull-Otterson L, Feng W, Kirpich I, Wang Y, Qin X, Liu Y, Gobejishvili L, Joshi-Barve S, Ayvaz T, Petrosino J, Kong M, Barker D, McClain C, Barve S. Metagenomic analyses of alcohol induced pathogenic alterations in the intestinal microbiome and the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53028. PMID: 23326376; PMCID: PMC3541399.
    70. Niu T, Smith DL, Yang Z, Gao S, Yin T, Jiang ZH, You M, Gibbs RA, Petrosino JF, Hu M. Bioactivity and bioavailability of ginsenosides are dependent on the glycosidase activities of the A/J mouse intestinal microbiome defined by pyrosequencing. Pharm Res. 2013 Mar; 30(3):836-46. PMID: 23254888; PMCID: PMC4372807.
    71. Noval Rivas M, Burton OT, Wise P, Zhang YQ, Hobson SA, Garcia Lloret M, Chehoud C, Kuczynski J, DeSantis T, Warrington J, Hyde ER, Petrosino JF, Gerber GK, Bry L, Oettgen HC, Mazmanian SK, Chatila TA. A microbiota signature associated with experimental food allergy promotes allergic sensitization and anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Jan; 131(1):201-12. PMID: 23201093; PMCID: PMC3860814.
    72. Aagaard K, Petrosino J, Keitel W, Watson M, Katancik J, Garcia N, Patel S, Cutting M, Madden T, Hamilton H, Harris E, Gevers D, Simone G, McInnes P, Versalovic J. The Human Microbiome Project strategy for comprehensive sampling of the human microbiome and why it matters. FASEB J. 2013 Mar; 27(3):1012-22. PMID: 23165986; PMCID: PMC3574278.
    73. McWilliams BD, Palzkill T, Weinstock GM, Petrosino JF. Identification of novel and cross-species seroreactive proteins from Bacillus anthracis using a ligation-independent cloning-based, SOS-inducible expression system. Microb Pathog. 2012 Nov-Dec; 53(5-6):250-8. PMID: 22975444; PMCID: PMC3779308.
    74. Preidis GA, Saulnier DM, Blutt SE, Mistretta TA, Riehle KP, Major AM, Venable SF, Barrish JP, Finegold MJ, Petrosino JF, Guerrant RL, Conner ME, Versalovic J. Host response to probiotics determined by nutritional status of rotavirus-infected neonatal mice. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012 Sep; 55(3):299-307. PMID: 22343914; PMCID: PMC4010314.
    75. Gevers D, Knight R, Petrosino JF, Huang K, McGuire AL, Birren BW, Nelson KE, White O, Methé BA, Huttenhower C. The Human Microbiome Project: a community resource for the healthy human microbiome. PLoS Biol. 2012; 10(8):e1001377. PMID: 22904687; PMCID: PMC3419203.
    76. Qin X, Galloway-Peña JR, Sillanpaa J, Roh JH, Nallapareddy SR, Chowdhury S, Bourgogne A, Choudhury T, Muzny DM, Buhay CJ, Ding Y, Dugan-Rocha S, Liu W, Kovar C, Sodergren E, Highlander S, Petrosino JF, Worley KC, Gibbs RA, Weinstock GM, Murray BE. Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecium strain TX16 and comparative genomic analysis of Enterococcus faecium genomes. BMC Microbiol. 2012; 12:135. PMID: 22769602; PMCID: PMC3433357.
    77. Nagy-Szakal D, Ross MC, Dowd SE, Mir SA, Schaible TD, Petrosino JF, Kellermayer R. Maternal micronutrients can modify colonic mucosal microbiota maturation in murine offspring. Gut Microbes. 2012 Sep-Oct; 3(5):426-33. PMID: 22713270; PMCID: PMC3679229.
    78. Aagaard K, Riehle K, Ma J, Segata N, Mistretta TA, Coarfa C, Raza S, Rosenbaum S, Van den Veyver I, Milosavljevic A, Gevers D, Huttenhower C, Petrosino J, Versalovic J. A metagenomic approach to characterization of the vaginal microbiome signature in pregnancy. PLoS One. 2012; 7(6):e36466. PMID: 22719832; PMCID: PMC3374618.
    79. Schloss PD, Schubert AM, Zackular JP, Iverson KD, Young VB, Petrosino JF. Stabilization of the murine gut microbiome following weaning. Gut Microbes. 2012 Jul-Aug; 3(4):383-93. PMID: 22688727; PMCID: PMC3463496.
    80. Zhao J, Schloss PD, Kalikin LM, Carmody LA, Foster BK, Petrosino JF, Cavalcoli JD, VanDevanter DR, Murray S, Li JZ, Young VB, LiPuma JJ. Decade-long bacterial community dynamics in cystic fibrosis airways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 10; 109(15):5809-14. PMID: 22451929; PMCID: PMC3326496.
    81. Zhao J, Carmody LA, Kalikin LM, Li J, Petrosino JF, Schloss PD, Young VB, LiPuma JJ. Impact of enhanced Staphylococcus DNA extraction on microbial community measures in cystic fibrosis sputum. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e33127. PMID: 22412992; PMCID: PMC3297625.
    82. Preidis GA, Saulnier DM, Blutt SE, Mistretta TA, Riehle KP, Major AM, Venable SF, Finegold MJ, Petrosino JF, Conner ME, Versalovic J. Probiotics stimulate enterocyte migration and microbial diversity in the neonatal mouse intestine. FASEB J. 2012 May; 26(5):1960-9. PMID: 22267340; PMCID: PMC3336785.
    83. Sczesnak A, Segata N, Qin X, Gevers D, Petrosino JF, Huttenhower C, Littman DR, Ivanov II. The genome of th17 cell-inducing segmented filamentous bacteria reveals extensive auxotrophy and adaptations to the intestinal environment. Cell Host Microbe. 2011 Sep 15; 10(3):260-72. PMID: 21925113; PMCID: PMC3209701.
    84. Zhao J, Li J, Schloss PD, Kalikin LM, Raymond TA, Petrosino JF, Young VB, LiPuma JJ. Effect of sample storage conditions on culture-independent bacterial community measures in cystic fibrosis sputum specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Oct; 49(10):3717-8. PMID: 21865433; PMCID: PMC3187318.
    85. Saulnier DM, Riehle K, Mistretta TA, Diaz MA, Mandal D, Raza S, Weidler EM, Qin X, Coarfa C, Milosavljevic A, Petrosino JF, Highlander S, Gibbs R, Lynch SV, Shulman RJ, Versalovic J. Gastrointestinal microbiome signatures of pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2011 Nov; 141(5):1782-91. PMID: 21741921; PMCID: PMC3417828.
    86. Yilmaz P, Kottmann R, Field D, Knight R, Cole JR, Amaral-Zettler L, Gilbert JA, Karsch-Mizrachi I, Johnston A, Cochrane G, Vaughan R, Hunter C, Park J, Morrison N, Rocca-Serra P, Sterk P, Arumugam M, Bailey M, Baumgartner L, Birren BW, Blaser MJ, Bonazzi V, Booth T, Bork P, Bushman FD, Buttigieg PL, Chain PS, Charlson E, Costello EK, Huot-Creasy H, Dawyndt P, DeSantis T, Fierer N, Fuhrman JA, Gallery RE, Gevers D, Gibbs RA, San Gil I, Gonzalez A, Gordon JI, Guralnick R, Hankeln W, Highlander S, Hugenholtz P, Jansson J, Kau AL, Kelley ST, Kennedy J, Knights D, Koren O, Kuczynski J, Kyrpides N, Larsen R, Lauber CL, Legg T, Ley RE, Lozupone CA, Ludwig W, Lyons D, Maguire E, Methé BA, Meyer F, Muegge B, Nakielny S, Nelson KE, Nemergut D, Neufeld JD, Newbold LK, Oliver AE, Pace NR, Palanisamy G, Peplies J, Petrosino J, Proctor L, Pruesse E, Quast C, Raes J, Ratnasingham S, Ravel J, Relman DA, Assunta-Sansone S, Schloss PD, Schriml L, Sinha R, Smith MI, Sodergren E, Spo A, Stombaugh J, Tiedje JM, Ward DV, Weinstock GM, Wendel D, White O, Whiteley A, Wilke A, Wortman JR, Yatsunenko T, Glöckner FO. Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications. Nat Biotechnol. 2011 May; 29(5):415-20. PMID: 21552244; PMCID: PMC3367316.
    87. Haas BJ, Gevers D, Earl AM, Feldgarden M, Ward DV, Giannoukos G, Ciulla D, Tabbaa D, Highlander SK, Sodergren E, Methé B, DeSantis TZ. Chimeric 16S rRNA sequence formation and detection in Sanger and 454-pyrosequenced PCR amplicons. Genome Res. 2011 Mar; 21(3):494-504. PMID: 21212162; PMCID: PMC3044863.
    88. A catalog of reference genomes from the human microbiome. Science. 2010 May 21; 328(5981):994-9. PMID: 20489017; PMCID: PMC2940224.
    89. Petrosino JF, Galhardo RS, Morales LD, Rosenberg SM. Stress-induced beta-lactam antibiotic resistance mutation and sequences of stationary-phase mutations in the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Bacteriol. 2009 Oct; 191(19):5881-9. PMID: 19648247; PMCID: PMC2747895.
    90. Petrosino JF, Highlander S, Luna RA, Gibbs RA, Versalovic J. Metagenomic pyrosequencing and microbial identification. Clin Chem. 2009 May; 55(5):856-66. PMID: 19264858; PMCID: PMC2892905.
    91. Gao H, Pattison D, Yan T, Klingeman DM, Wang X, Petrosino J, Hemphill L, Wan X, Leaphart AB, Weinstock GM, Palzkill T, Zhou J. Generation and validation of a Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 clone set for protein expression and phage display. PLoS One. 2008; 3(8):e2983. PMID: 18714347; PMCID: PMC2500165.
    92. Matejková P, Strouhal M, Smajs D, Norris SJ, Palzkill T, Petrosino JF, Sodergren E, Norton JE, Singh J, Richmond TA, Molla MN, Albert TJ, Weinstock GM. Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum strain SS14 determined with oligonucleotide arrays. BMC Microbiol. 2008; 8:76. PMID: 18482458; PMCID: PMC2408589.
    93. Durfee T, Nelson R, Baldwin S, Plunkett G, Burland V, Mau B, Petrosino JF, Qin X, Muzny DM, Ayele M, Gibbs RA, Csörgo B, Pósfai G, Weinstock GM, Blattner FR. The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli DH10B: insights into the biology of a laboratory workhorse. J Bacteriol. 2008 Apr; 190(7):2597-606. PMID: 18245285; PMCID: PMC2293198.
    94. Highlander SK, Hultén KG, Qin X, Jiang H, Yerrapragada S, Mason EO, Shang Y, Williams TM, Fortunov RM, Liu Y, Igboeli O, Petrosino J, Tirumalai M, Uzman A, Fox GE, Cardenas AM, Muzny DM, Hemphill L, Ding Y, Dugan S, Blyth PR, Buhay CJ, Dinh HH, Hawes AC, Holder M, Kovar CL, Lee SL, Liu W, Nazareth LV, Wang Q, Zhou J, Kaplan SL, Weinstock GM. Subtle genetic changes enhance virulence of methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. BMC Microbiol. 2007; 7:99. PMID: 17986343; PMCID: PMC2222628.
    95. Gioia J, Yerrapragada S, Qin X, Jiang H, Igboeli OC, Muzny D, Dugan-Rocha S, Ding Y, Hawes A, Liu W, Perez L, Kovar C, Dinh H, Lee S, Nazareth L, Blyth P, Holder M, Buhay C, Tirumalai MR, Liu Y, Dasgupta I, Bokhetache L, Fujita M, Karouia F, Eswara Moorthy P, Siefert J, Uzman A, Buzumbo P, Verma A, Zwiya H, McWilliams BD, Olowu A, Clinkenbeard KD, Newcombe D, Golebiewski L, Petrosino JF, Nicholson WL, Fox GE, Venkateswaran K, Highlander SK, Weinstock GM. Paradoxical DNA repair and peroxide resistance gene conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032. PLoS One. 2007; 2(9):e928. PMID: 17895969; PMCID: PMC1976550.
    96. Karpathy SE, Qin X, Gioia J, Jiang H, Liu Y, Petrosino JF, Yerrapragada S, Fox GE, Haake SK, Weinstock GM, Highlander SK. Genome sequence of Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies polymorphum - a genetically tractable fusobacterium. PLoS One. 2007; 2(7):e659. PMID: 17668047; PMCID: PMC1924603.
    97. Titball RW, Petrosino JF. Francisella tularensis genomics and proteomics. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Jun; 1105:98-121. PMID: 17435122.
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    98. Petrosino JF, Xiang Q, Karpathy SE, Jiang H, Yerrapragada S, Liu Y, Gioia J, Hemphill L, Gonzalez A, Raghavan TM, Uzman A, Fox GE, Highlander S, Reichard M, Morton RJ, Clinkenbeard KD, Weinstock GM. Chromosome rearrangement and diversification of Francisella tularensis revealed by the type B (OSU18) genome sequence. J Bacteriol. 2006 Oct; 188(19):6977-85. PMID: 16980500; PMCID: PMC1595524.
    99. Hastings PJ, Slack A, Petrosino JF, Rosenberg SM. Adaptive amplification and point mutation are independent mechanisms: evidence for various stress-inducible mutation mechanisms. PLoS Biol. 2004 Dec; 2(12):e399. PMID: 15550983; PMCID: PMC529313.
    100. McCool JD, Long E, Petrosino JF, Sandler HA, Rosenberg SM, Sandler SJ. Measurement of SOS expression in individual Escherichia coli K-12 cells using fluorescence microscopy. Mol Microbiol. 2004 Sep; 53(5):1343-57. PMID: 15387814.
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    101. Petrosino JF, Pendleton AR, Weiner JH, Rosenberg SM. Chromosomal system for studying AmpC-mediated beta-lactam resistance mutation in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 May; 46(5):1535-9. PMID: 11959593; PMCID: PMC127180.
    102. Petrosino JF, Baker M, Palzkill T. Susceptibility of beta-lactamase to core amino acid substitutions. Protein Eng. 1999 Sep; 12(9):761-9. PMID: 10506286.
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    103. Petrosino J, Rudgers G, Gilbert H, Palzkill T. Contributions of aspartate 49 and phenylalanine 142 residues of a tight binding inhibitory protein of beta-lactamases. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 22; 274(4):2394-400. PMID: 9891008.
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    104. Huang W, Petrosino J, Palzkill T. Display of functional beta-lactamase inhibitory protein on the surface of M13 bacteriophage. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Nov; 42(11):2893-7. PMID: 9797222; PMCID: PMC105962.
    105. Petrosino J, Cantu C, Palzkill T. beta-Lactamases: protein evolution in real time. Trends Microbiol. 1998 Aug; 6(8):323-7. PMID: 9746943.
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    106. Huang W, Petrosino J, Hirsch M, Shenkin PS, Palzkill T. Amino acid sequence determinants of beta-lactamase structure and activity. J Mol Biol. 1996 May 17; 258(4):688-703. PMID: 8637002.
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    107. Petrosino JF, Palzkill T. Systematic mutagenesis of the active site omega loop of TEM-1 beta-lactamase. J Bacteriol. 1996 Apr; 178(7):1821-8. PMID: 8606154; PMCID: PMC177875.
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