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CHRISTINE BEETON

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
DepartmentDepartment of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics
DivisionMolecular Physiology & Biophysics
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse awards and honors
    1991Prize for scientific vocation, French Ministry of Women’s rights
    1998 - 2000Pre-doctoral Fellowship, French Multiple Sclerosis Society (Association pour la Recherche sur la Sclérose en Plaques)
    2001Dissertation Fellowship, French Medical Research Association (Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale)
    2001 - 2004Postdoctoral Fellowship , National Multiple Sclerosis Society
    2005Laverna Titus Award, American Heart Association
    2012Co-chair, session Toxins and Ion Channels, 17th World Congress of the International Society on Toxinology

    Collapse Overview 
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    Christine Beeton is an immunologist with an interest in autoimmunity and inflammation. She received a Bachelor and a Master of Science in Biochemistry from the Faculté des Sciences de Luminy within the Université de la Mediterranée in Marseille, France. She joined Dr. Evelyne Béraud’s group for her PhD in Immunology and then moved to the University of California, Irvine, to join Dr. K. George Chandy’s group in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics as a Postdoctoral Fellow in 2001. She was promoted to Assistant Researcher in 2006 and joined the faculty of the Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics at Baylor College of Medicine in 2008. In 2010 she assumed the role of Academic Director of the Cytometry and Cell Sorting Core for the Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center at Baylor College of Medicine.

    As a Graduate Student, Christine Beeton was the first to show the benefits of blocking Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 channels with the scorpion venom peptide kaliotoxin to prevent and treat adoptive acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. She went on showing, in collaboration with Drs. Chandy and Wulff, that encephalitogenic T lymphocytes express more Kv1.3 channels than naïve T lymphocytes do and that targeting Kv1.3 channels only with ShK-Dap22 was sufficient to treat this model of multiple sclerosis. As a Postdoctoral Fellow, she continued her collaborative work with Dr. Wulff who showed that terminally differentiated human CCR7- effector memory T (TEM) lymphocytes up-regulate Kv1.3 channels upon activation whereas CCR7+ naïve and central memory T (TCM) lymphocytes up-regulate KCa3.1 channels. She demonstrated a similar switch in potassium channel phenotype in rat, but not mouse, T lymphocytes. In collaboration with the groups of Drs. Nepom, Andrews, and Calabresi she showed that T lymphocyte isolated from the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis express high numbers of Kv1.3 channels. Through collaborative work with the groups of Drs. Pennington and Norton, she developed a novel analog of ShK, ShK-186 (now known as dalazatide), as a highly potent and selective blocker of Kv1.3 channels. ShK-186 preferentially inhibits human and rat TEM lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo and treats animal models of delayed type hypersensitivity, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma without preventing the clearance of acute viral or bacterial infections. Drs. Chandy, Beeton, and Pennington are inventors of a world-wide patent on ShK-186 and related compounds. This patent was licensed to Kineta, Inc. for the development of a new class of immunomodulators for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Phase 1a and 1b clinical trials in healthy volunteers have shown that ShK-196 is well tolerated.

    The Beeton Lab is interested in all aspects of translational research surrounding autoimmune and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Our expertise ranges from the isolation and culture of primary human and rodent cells (lymphocytes, monocyte/macrophages, and other immune cells; fibroblast-like synoviocytes; myoblasts), functional assays ex vivo (proliferation, production and secretion of cytokines, chemokines, proteases, migration, invasion, cytotoxicity, and more) and in vivo (trafficking, production and secretion of cytokines, chemokines, proteases, and more), patch-clamp electrophysiology on excitable and non-excitable cells for identification of ion channels and pharmacology of novel ion channel modulators, and animal models of inflammatory diseases in rats and mice (active and adoptive delayed type hypersensitivity, active and adoptive acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, chronic-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, collagen-induced arthritis, pristane-induced arthritis, and adjuvant-induced arthritis). Our current work revolves around two main topics: targeting potassium channels for the treatment of chronic diseases (multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 myotonic dystrophy) and using antioxidant nanomaterials for the treatment of T lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune diseases (multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis).

    Collapse Research 
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    R03AR059838     (BEETON, CHRISTINE)Jul 1, 2010 - Jun 30, 2013
    NIH/NIAMS
    Potassium channels in myotonic dystrophy type 1
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R56AI084981     (BEETON, CHRISTINE)Aug 18, 2010 - Jan 31, 2012
    NIH/NIAID
    Targeting T lymphocyte potassium channels for the treatment of asthma--OLD
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01NS073712     (BEETON, CHRISTINE)Sep 1, 2011 - May 31, 2016
    NIH/NINDS
    New Peptides for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
    Role: Principal Investigator

    S10OD025251     (BEETON, CHRISTINE)Mar 13, 2018 - Mar 12, 2019
    NIH
    Union Biometrica BioSorter
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R21AI136876     (BEETON, CHRISTINE)Dec 1, 2018 - Nov 30, 2020
    NIH/NIAID
    In vivo production of a potassium channel inhibitor for immunomodulation
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Tanner MR, Pennington MW, Chauhan SS, Laragione T, Gulko PS, Beeton C. KCa1.1 and Kv1.3 channels regulate the interactions between fibroblast-like synoviocytes and T lymphocytes during rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2019 Jan 07; 21(1):6. PMID: 30612588.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Yao C, Veleva T, Scott L, Cao S, Li L, Chen G, Jeyabal P, Pan X, Alsina KM, Abu-Taha I, Ghezelbash S, Reynolds CL, Shen YH, LeMaire SA, Schmitz W, Müller FU, El-Armouche A, Tony Eissa N, Beeton C, Nattel S, Wehrens XHT, Dobrev D, Li N. Enhanced Cardiomyocyte NLRP3 Inflammasome Signaling Promotes Atrial Fibrillation. Circulation. 2018 Nov 13; 138(20):2227-2242. PMID: 29802206.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Tanner MR, Pennington MW, Chamberlain BH, Huq R, Gehrmann EJ, Laragione T, Gulko PS, Beeton C. Targeting KCa1.1 Channels with a Scorpion Venom Peptide for the Therapy of Rat Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018 05; 365(2):227-236. PMID: 29453198.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Tanner MR, Beeton C. Differences in ion channel phenotype and function between humans and animal models. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2018 Jan 01; 23:43-64. PMID: 28930537.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Beeton C. KCa1.1 channels as therapeutic targets for rheumatoid arthritis. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2017 12; 21(12):1077-1081. PMID: 29076378.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Bergmann R, Kubeil M, Zarschler K, Chhabra S, Tajhya RB, Beeton C, Pennington MW, Bachmann M, Norton RS, Stephan H. Distribution and kinetics of the Kv1.3-blocking peptide HsTX1[R14A] in experimental rats. Sci Rep. 2017 06 16; 7(1):3756. PMID: 28623364.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Tanner MR, Pennington MW, Laragione T, Gulko PS, Beeton C. KCa1.1 channels regulate ß1-integrin function and cell adhesion in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes. FASEB J. 2017 08; 31(8):3309-3320. PMID: 28428266.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Tanner MR, Tajhya RB, Huq R, Gehrmann EJ, Rodarte KE, Atik MA, Norton RS, Pennington MW, Beeton C. Prolonged immunomodulation in inflammatory arthritis using the selective Kv1.3 channel blocker HsTX1[R14A] and its PEGylated analog. Clin Immunol. 2017 07; 180:45-57. PMID: 28389388.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Tajhya RB, Patel RS, Beeton C. Detection of Matrix Metalloproteinases by Zymography. Methods Mol Biol. 2017; 1579:231-244. PMID: 28299740.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Fortune RD, Grill RJ, Beeton C, Tanner M, Huq R, Loose DS. Changes in Gene Expression and Metabolism in the Testes of the Rat following Spinal Cord Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2017 03 15; 34(6):1175-1186. PMID: 27750479.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Tajhya RB, Hu X, Tanner MR, Huq R, Kongchan N, Neilson JR, Rodney GG, Horrigan FT, Timchenko LT, Beeton C. Functional KCa1.1 channels are crucial for regulating the proliferation, migration and differentiation of human primary skeletal myoblasts. Cell Death Dis. 2016 10 20; 7(10):e2426. PMID: 27763639.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Huq R, Samuel EL, Sikkema WK, Nilewski LG, Lee T, Tanner MR, Khan FS, Porter PC, Tajhya RB, Patel RS, Inoue T, Pautler RG, Corry DB, Tour JM, Beeton C. Preferential uptake of antioxidant carbon nanoparticles by T lymphocytes for immunomodulation. Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 22; 6:33808. PMID: 27654170.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Inoue T, Griffin DM, Huq R, Samuel EL, Ruano SH, Stinnett G, Majid TJ, Beeton C, Tour JM, Pautler RG. Characterization of a novel MR-detectable nanoantioxidant that mitigates the recall immune response. NMR Biomed. 2016 10; 29(10):1436-44. PMID: 27552925.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Petho Z, Tanner MR, Tajhya RB, Huq R, Laragione T, Panyi G, Gulko PS, Beeton C. Different expression of ß subunits of the KCa1.1 channel by invasive and non-invasive human fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Arthritis Res Ther. 2016 05 10; 18(1):103. PMID: 27165430.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Ayyar BV, Tajhya RB, Beeton C, Atassi MZ. Antigenic sites on the HN domain of botulinum neurotoxin A stimulate protective antibody responses against active toxin. Sci Rep. 2015 Oct 28; 5:15776. PMID: 26508475.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Chang SC, Huq R, Chhabra S, Beeton C, Pennington MW, Smith BJ, Norton RS. N-Terminally extended analogues of the K? channel toxin from Stichodactyla helianthus as potent and selective blockers of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3. FEBS J. 2015 Jun; 282(12):2247-59. PMID: 25864722.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Laragione T, Cheng KF, Tanner MR, He M, Beeton C, Al-Abed Y, Gulko PS. The cation channel Trpv2 is a new suppressor of arthritis severity, joint damage, and synovial fibroblast invasion. Clin Immunol. 2015 Jun; 158(2):183-92. PMID: 25869297.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Norton RS, Pennington MW, Beeton C. Venoms to drugs: Venom as a source for the development of human therapeutics, G.F. King, Editor. Transforming a toxin into a therapeutic: the sea anemone potassium channel blocker ShK toxin for treatment of autoimmune diseases. 2015.
    19. Lee CS, Dagnino-Acosta A, Yarotskyy V, Hanna A, Lyfenko A, Knoblauch M, Georgiou DK, Poché RA, Swank MW, Long C, Ismailov II, Lanner J, Tran T, Dong K, Rodney GG, Dickinson ME, Beeton C, Zhang P, Dirksen RT, Hamilton SL. Ca(2+) permeation and/or binding to CaV1.1 fine-tunes skeletal muscle Ca(2+) signaling to sustain muscle function. Skelet Muscle. 2015; 5:4. PMID: 25717360.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Pennington MW, Chang SC, Chauhan S, Huq R, Tajhya RB, Chhabra S, Norton RS, Beeton C. Development of highly selective Kv1.3-blocking peptides based on the sea anemone peptide ShK. Mar Drugs. 2015 Jan 16; 13(1):529-42. PMID: 25603346.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Tanner MR, Hu X, Huq R, Tajhya RB, Sun L, Khan FS, Laragione T, Horrigan FT, Gulko PS, Beeton C. KCa1.1 inhibition attenuates fibroblast-like synoviocyte invasiveness and ameliorates disease in rat models of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Jan; 67(1):96-106. PMID: 25252152.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Ge L, Hoa NT, Wilson Z, Arismendi-Morillo G, Kong XT, Tajhya RB, Beeton C, Jadus MR. Big Potassium (BK) ion channels in biology, disease and possible targets for cancer immunotherapy. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Oct; 22(2):427-43. PMID: 25027630.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Chhabra S, Chang SC, Nguyen HM, Huq R, Tanner MR, Londono LM, Estrada R, Dhawan V, Chauhan S, Upadhyay SK, Gindin M, Hotez PJ, Valenzuela JG, Mohanty B, Swarbrick JD, Wulff H, Iadonato SP, Gutman GA, Beeton C, Pennington MW, Norton RS, Chandy KG. Kv1.3 channel-blocking immunomodulatory peptides from parasitic worms: implications for autoimmune diseases. FASEB J. 2014 Sep; 28(9):3952-64. PMID: 24891519.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Hoa NT, Ge L, Tajhya RB, Beeton C, Cornforth AN, Abolhoda A, Lambrecht N, DaCosta-Iyer M, Ouyang Y, Mai AP, Hong E, Shon J, Hickey MJ, Erickson KL, Kruse CA, Jadus MR. Small cell lung cancer cells express the late stage gBK tumor antigen: a possible immunotarget for the terminal disease. Am J Transl Res. 2014; 6(3):188-205. PMID: 24936214.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Rashid MH, Huq R, Tanner MR, Chhabra S, Khoo KK, Estrada R, Dhawan V, Chauhan S, Pennington MW, Beeton C, Kuyucak S, Norton RS. A potent and Kv1.3-selective analogue of the scorpion toxin HsTX1 as a potential therapeutic for autoimmune diseases. Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 28; 4:4509. PMID: 24676092.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Koshy S, Huq R, Tanner MR, Atik MA, Porter PC, Khan FS, Pennington MW, Hanania NA, Corry DB, Beeton C. Blocking KV1.3 channels inhibits Th2 lymphocyte function and treats a rat model of asthma. J Biol Chem. 2014 May 02; 289(18):12623-32. PMID: 24644290.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Panyi G, Beeton C, Felipe A. Ion channels and anti-cancer immunity. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2014 Mar 19; 369(1638):20130106. PMID: 24493754.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Rashid MH, Heinzelmann G, Huq R, Tajhya RB, Chang SC, Chhabra S, Pennington MW, Beeton C, Norton RS, Kuyucak S. A potent and selective peptide blocker of the Kv1.3 channel: prediction from free-energy simulations and experimental confirmation. PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e78712. PMID: 24244345.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Koshy S, Wu D, Hu X, Tajhya RB, Huq R, Khan FS, Pennington MW, Wulff H, Yotnda P, Beeton C. Blocking KCa3.1 channels increases tumor cell killing by a subpopulation of human natural killer lymphocytes. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e76740. PMID: 24146918.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Beeton C. The handbook of peptides, 2nd edition, A.J. Kastin, Editor. Targets and therapeutic properties of venom peptides. 2013; ISBN 978-0-12-385095-9.
    31. Anangi R, Koshy S, Huq R, Beeton C, Chuang WJ, King GF. Recombinant expression of margatoxin and agitoxin-2 in Pichia pastoris: an efficient method for production of KV1.3 channel blockers. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e52965. PMID: 23300835.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Pennington MW, Harunur Rashid M, Tajhya RB, Beeton C, Kuyucak S, Norton RS. A C-terminally amidated analogue of ShK is a potent and selective blocker of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3. FEBS Lett. 2012 Nov 16; 586(22):3996-4001. PMID: 23063513.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Chang SC, Galea CA, Leung EW, Tajhya RB, Beeton C, Pennington MW, Norton RS. Expression and isotopic labelling of the potassium channel blocker ShK toxin as a thioredoxin fusion protein in bacteria. Toxicon. 2012 Oct; 60(5):840-50. PMID: 22659540.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Tarcha EJ, Chi V, Muñoz-Elías EJ, Bailey D, Londono LM, Upadhyay SK, Norton K, Banks A, Tjong I, Nguyen H, Hu X, Ruppert GW, Boley SE, Slauter R, Sams J, Knapp B, Kentala D, Hansen Z, Pennington MW, Beeton C, Chandy KG, Iadonato SP. Durable pharmacological responses from the peptide ShK-186, a specific Kv1.3 channel inhibitor that suppresses T cell mediators of autoimmune disease. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012 Sep; 342(3):642-53. PMID: 22637724.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Varga Z, Gurrola-Briones G, Papp F, Rodríguez de la Vega RC, Pedraza-Alva G, Tajhya RB, Gaspar R, Cardenas L, Rosenstein Y, Beeton C, Possani LD, Panyi G. Vm24, a natural immunosuppressive peptide, potently and selectively blocks Kv1.3 potassium channels of human T cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2012 Sep; 82(3):372-82. PMID: 22622363.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Hu X, Laragione T, Sun L, Koshy S, Jones KR, Ismailov II, Yotnda P, Horrigan FT, Gulko PS, Beeton C. KCa1.1 potassium channels regulate key proinflammatory and invasive properties of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. J Biol Chem. 2012 Feb 03; 287(6):4014-22. PMID: 22074915.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Beeton C, Pennington MW, Norton RS. Analogs of the sea anemone potassium channel blocker ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2011 Oct; 10(5):313-21. PMID: 21824083.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Chi V, Pennington MW, Norton RS, Tarcha EJ, Londono LM, Sims-Fahey B, Upadhyay SK, Lakey JT, Iadonato S, Wulff H, Beeton C, Chandy KG. Development of a sea anemone toxin as an immunomodulator for therapy of autoimmune diseases. Toxicon. 2012 Mar 15; 59(4):529-46. PMID: 21867724.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Mkhikian H, Grigorian A, Li CF, Chen HL, Newton B, Zhou RW, Beeton C, Torossian S, Tatarian GG, Lee SU, Lau K, Walker E, Siminovitch KA, Chandy KG, Yu Z, Dennis JW, Demetriou M. Genetics and the environment converge to dysregulate N-glycosylation in multiple sclerosis. Nat Commun. 2011; 2:334. PMID: 21629267.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Hu X, Beeton C. Detection of functional matrix metalloproteinases by zymography. J Vis Exp. 2010 Nov 08; (45). PMID: 21085107.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Koshy S, Alizadeh P, Timchenko LT, Beeton C. Quantitative measurement of GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane by flow cytometry. J Vis Exp. 2010 Nov 07; (45). PMID: 21085106.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Pennington MW, Beeton C, Galea CA, Smith BJ, Chi V, Monaghan KP, Garcia A, Rangaraju S, Giuffrida A, Plank D, Crossley G, Nugent D, Khaytin I, Lefievre Y, Peshenko I, Dixon C, Chauhan S, Orzel A, Inoue T, Hu X, Moore RV, Norton RS, Chandy KG. Engineering a stable and selective peptide blocker of the Kv1.3 channel in T lymphocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Apr; 75(4):762-73. PMID: 19122005.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Matheu MP, Beeton C, Garcia A, Chi V, Rangaraju S, Safrina O, Monaghan K, Uemura MI, Li D, Pal S, de la Maza LM, Monuki E, Flügel A, Pennington MW, Parker I, Chandy KG, Cahalan MD. Imaging of effector memory T cells during a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and suppression by Kv1.3 channel block. Immunity. 2008 Oct 17; 29(4):602-14. PMID: 18835197.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Matheu MP, Beeton C, Parker I, Chandy KG, D Cahalan M. Imaging effector memory T cells in the ear after induction of adoptive DTH. J Vis Exp. 2008 Aug 14; (18). PMID: 19066497.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Beeton C, Chandy KG. Isolation of mononuclear cells from the central nervous system of rats with EAE. J Vis Exp. 2007; (10):527. PMID: 18989401.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Beeton C. Discovery on Target 2007--CHI's Fifth Annual Conference. Ion channels. IDrugs. 2007 Dec; 10(12):851-4. PMID: 18041678.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Beeton C, Smith BJ, Sabo JK, Crossley G, Nugent D, Khaytin I, Chi V, Chandy KG, Pennington MW, Norton RS. The D-diastereomer of ShK toxin selectively blocks voltage-gated K+ channels and inhibits T lymphocyte proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jan 11; 283(2):988-97. PMID: 17984097.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Beeton C, Chandy KG. Preparing T cell growth factor from rat splenocytes. J Vis Exp. 2007; (10):402. PMID: 18989399.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Beeton C, Chandy KG. Induction and monitoring of adoptive delayed-type hypersensitivity in rats. J Vis Exp. 2007 Oct 01; (8). PMID: 19252470.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Beeton C, Chandy KG. Enrichment of NK cells from human blood with the RosetteSep kit from StemCell technologies. J Vis Exp. 2007; (8):326. PMID: 18989426.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Beeton C, Garcia A, Chandy KG. Drawing blood from rats through the saphenous vein and by cardiac puncture. J Vis Exp. 2007; (7):266. PMID: 18989437.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Beeton C, Chandy KG. Induction and monitoring of active delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in rats. J Vis Exp. 2007; (6):237. PMID: 18997885.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Beeton C, Garcia A, Chandy KG. Induction and clinical scoring of chronic-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Vis Exp. 2007; (5):224. PMID: 18979022.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Beeton C, Wulff H, Standifer NE, Azam P, Mullen KM, Pennington MW, Kolski-Andreaco A, Wei E, Grino A, Counts DR, Wang PH, LeeHealey CJ, S Andrews B, Sankaranarayanan A, Homerick D, Roeck WW, Tehranzadeh J, Stanhope KL, Zimin P, Havel PJ, Griffey S, Knaus HG, Nepom GT, Gutman GA, Calabresi PA, Chandy KG. Kv1.3 channels are a therapeutic target for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 14; 103(46):17414-9. PMID: 17088564.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Beeton C, Gutman GA, Chandy KG. The handbook of peptides, A.J. Kastin, Editor. Targets and therapeutic properties of venom peptides. 2006; ISBN 0123694426 .
    56. Wulff H, Beeton C, Calabresi PA, Gutman GA, Pennington MW, Chandy KG . Voltage-gated ion channels as drug targets, D.J. Triggle, M. Gopalakrishnan, D. Rampe, Editors. The Kv1.3 potassium channel: physiology, pharmacology and therapeutic indications. 2006; ISBN 3-527-31258-7.
    57. Chandy KG, Beeton C, Pennington MW. Analogs of ShK toxin and their uses in selective inhibition of Kv1.3 potassium channels. 2006.
    58. Beeton C, Chandy KG. Potassium channels, memory T cells, and multiple sclerosis. Neuroscientist. 2005 Dec; 11(6):550-62. PMID: 16282596.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Carrega L, Mosbah A, Ferrat G, Beeton C, Andreotti N, Mansuelle P, Darbon H, De Waard M, Sabatier JM. The impact of the fourth disulfide bridge in scorpion toxins of the alpha-KTx6 subfamily. Proteins. 2005 Dec 01; 61(4):1010-23. PMID: 16247791.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Rus H, Pardo CA, Hu L, Darrah E, Cudrici C, Niculescu T, Niculescu F, Mullen KM, Allie R, Guo L, Wulff H, Beeton C, Judge SI, Kerr DA, Knaus HG, Chandy KG, Calabresi PA. The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 is highly expressed on inflammatory infiltrates in multiple sclerosis brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 02; 102(31):11094-9. PMID: 16043714.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Beeton C, Pennington MW, Wulff H, Singh S, Nugent D, Crossley G, Khaytin I, Calabresi PA, Chen CY, Gutman GA, Chandy KG. Targeting effector memory T cells with a selective peptide inhibitor of Kv1.3 channels for therapy of autoimmune diseases. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Apr; 67(4):1369-81. PMID: 15665253.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Regaya I, Beeton C, Ferrat G, Andreotti N, Darbon H, De Waard M, Sabatier JM. Evidence for domain-specific recognition of SK and Kv channels by MTX and HsTx1 scorpion toxins. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 31; 279(53):55690-6. PMID: 15498765.
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    63. Vennekamp J, Wulff H, Beeton C, Calabresi PA, Grissmer S, Hänsel W, Chandy KG. Kv1.3-blocking 5-phenylalkoxypsoralens: a new class of immunomodulators. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Jun; 65(6):1364-74. PMID: 15155830.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Chandy KG, Wulff H, Beeton C, Pennington M, Gutman GA, Cahalan MD. K+ channels as targets for specific immunomodulation. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2004 May; 25(5):280-9. PMID: 15120495.
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    65. Devaux J, Beeton C, Béraud E, Crest M. [Ion channels and demyelination: basis of a treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by potassium channel blockers]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2004 May; 160(5 Pt 2):S16-27. PMID: 15269656.
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    66. Wulff H, Beeton C, Chandy KG. Potassium channels as therapeutic targets for autoimmune disorders. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep; 6(5):640-7. PMID: 14579513.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Wulff H, Calabresi PA, Allie R, Yun S, Pennington M, Beeton C, Chandy KG. The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K(+) channel in effector memory T cells as new target for MS. J Clin Invest. 2003 Jun; 111(11):1703-13. PMID: 12782673.
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    68. Devaux J, Forni C, Beeton C, Barbaria J, Béraud E, Gola M, Crest M. Myelin basic protein-reactive T cells induce conduction failure in vivo but not in vitro. Neuroreport. 2003 Mar 03; 14(3):317-20. PMID: 12634475.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Beeton C, Wulff H, Singh S, Botsko S, Crossley G, Gutman GA, Cahalan MD, Pennington M, Chandy KG. A novel fluorescent toxin to detect and investigate Kv1.3 channel up-regulation in chronically activated T lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 2003 Mar 14; 278(11):9928-37. PMID: 12511563.
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    70. Béraud E, Devaux J, Beeton C, Clot-Faybesse O, Barbaria J, Crest M. Ion channels and physiopathologies of nerve conduction and cell proliferation, B. Rouzaire-Dubois, E. Benoit & J.M. Dubois, Editors. Potassium channel blockers modify central nervous conduction, inhibit T-lymphocyte proliferation, and improve experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. 2002; ISBN 81-7736-135-X.
    71. Beeton C, Wulff H, Barbaria J, Clot-Faybesse O, Pennington M, Bernard D, Cahalan MD, Chandy KG, Béraud E. Selective blockade of T lymphocyte K(+) channels ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Nov 20; 98(24):13942-7. PMID: 11717451.
      View in: PubMed
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