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TIMOTHY GERALD PALZKILL

TitleChair
InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
DepartmentDepartment of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology
DivisionPharmacology
AddressOne Baylor Plaza
Houston TX 77030
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    Other Positions
    TitleProfessor
    InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
    DepartmentDepartment of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
    DivisionBiochemistry & Molecular Biology

    TitleProfessor
    InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
    DepartmentDepartment of Molecular Virology & Microbiology
    DivisionMolecular Virology & Microbiology

    TitleProfessor
    InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
    DepartmentDepartment of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology
    DivisionPharmacology


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    R37AI032956     (PALZKILL, TIMOTHY)Jul 1, 1992 - Apr 30, 2011
    NIH/NIAID
    Beta Lactamase Mutations in Antibiotic Resistance
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R56AI032956     (PALZKILL, TIMOTHY)Jul 1, 1992 - Apr 30, 2017
    NIH/NIAID
    Beta Lactamase Mutations in Antibiotic Resistance
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AI032956     (PALZKILL, TIMOTHY)Jul 1, 1992 - Dec 31, 2021
    NIH/NIAID
    BETA LACTAMASE MUTATIONS IN ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AI045842     (PALZKILL, TIMOTHY)Jul 15, 1999 - Feb 28, 2008
    NIH/NIAID
    FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS STUDY OF TREPONEMA PALLIDUM
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R90DA023418     (PALZKILL, TIMOTHY)Sep 30, 2006 - Jul 31, 2011
    NIH/NIDA
    Training in Biomedical Discovery from Large Scale Data Sets
    Role: Principal Investigator

    T90DA022885     (PALZKILL, TIMOTHY)Sep 30, 2006 - Jul 31, 2011
    NIH/NIDA
    Training in Biomedical Discovery from Large Scale Data Sets
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R21AI092063     (PALZKILL, TIMOTHY)Mar 7, 2011 - Aug 28, 2013
    NIH/NIAID
    Development of Protein-Based Beta-lactam Antibiotic Resistance Diagnostics
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AI106863     (PALZKILL, TIMOTHY)May 15, 2013 - Apr 30, 2018
    NIH/NIAID
    Analysis of metallo-beta-lactamase sequence constraints at high resolution
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AI143832     (PALZKILL, TIMOTHY)Jan 18, 2019 - Dec 31, 2023
    NIH/NIAID
    Discovery of Carbapenemase Inhibitors Using DNA-Encoded Chemical Libraries
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Viskovska MA, Zhao B, Shanker S, Choi JM, Deng L, Song Y, Palzkill T, Hu L, Estes MK, Venkataram Prasad BV. GII.4 Norovirus Protease Shows pH-Sensitive Proteolysis with a Unique Arg-His Pairing in the Catalytic Site. J Virol. 2019 Mar 15; 93(6). PMID: 30626675.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Wang L, Pang K, Han K, Adamski CJ, Wang W, He L, Lai JK, Bondar VV, Duman JG, Richman R, Tolias KF, Barth P, Palzkill T, Liu Z, Holder JL, Zoghbi HY. An autism-linked missense mutation in SHANK3 reveals the modularity of Shank3 function. Mol Psychiatry. 2019 Jan 04. PMID: 30610205.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Jiang X, Zhang C, Chen J, Choi S, Zhou Y, Zhao M, Song X, Chen X, Maletic-Savatic M, Palzkill T, Moore D, Wang MC, Wang J. Quantitative Real-Time Imaging of Glutathione with Subcellular Resolution. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2019 Jun 01; 30(16):1900-1910. PMID: 30358421.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Sun Z, Hu L, Sankaran B, Prasad BVV, Palzkill T. Differential active site requirements for NDM-1 ß-lactamase hydrolysis of carbapenem versus penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics. Nat Commun. 2018 10 30; 9(1):4524. PMID: 30375382.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Patel MP, Hu L, Brown CA, Sun Z, Adamski CJ, Stojanoski V, Sankaran B, Prasad BVV, Palzkill T. Synergistic effects of functionally distinct substitutions in ß-lactamase variants shed light on the evolution of bacterial drug resistance. J Biol Chem. 2018 11 16; 293(46):17971-17984. PMID: 30275013.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Palzkill T. Structural and Mechanistic Basis for Extended-Spectrum Drug-Resistance Mutations in Altering the Specificity of TEM, CTX-M, and KPC ß-lactamases. Front Mol Biosci. 2018; 5:16. PMID: 29527530.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Chen J, Jiang X, Zhang C, MacKenzie KR, Stossi F, Palzkill T, Wang MC, Wang J. Reversible Reaction-Based Fluorescent Probe for Real-Time Imaging of Glutathione Dynamics in Mitochondria. ACS Sens. 2017 Sep 22; 2(9):1257-1261. PMID: 28809477.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Patel MP, Hu L, Stojanoski V, Sankaran B, Prasad BVV, Palzkill T. The Drug-Resistant Variant P167S Expands the Substrate Profile of CTX-M ß-Lactamases for Oxyimino-Cephalosporin Antibiotics by Enlarging the Active Site upon Acylation. Biochemistry. 2017 07 11; 56(27):3443-3453. PMID: 28613873.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Adamski CJ, Palzkill T. Systematic substitutions at BLIP position 50 result in changes in binding specificity for class A ß-lactamases. BMC Biochem. 2017 03 06; 18(1):2. PMID: 28264645.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Adamski CJ, Palzkill T. BLIP-II Employs Differential Hotspot Residues To Bind Structurally Similar Staphylococcus aureus PBP2a and Class A ß-Lactamases. Biochemistry. 2017 02 28; 56(8):1075-1084. PMID: 28182405.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Hurwitz AM, Huang W, Kou B, Estes MK, Atmar RL, Palzkill T. Identification and Characterization of Single-Chain Antibodies that Specifically Bind GI Noroviruses. PLoS One. 2017; 12(1):e0170162. PMID: 28095447.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Hurwitz AM, Huang W, Estes MK, Atmar RL, Palzkill T. Deep sequencing of phage-displayed peptide libraries reveals sequence motif that detects norovirus. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2017 Feb; 30(2):129-139. PMID: 28035012.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Chow DC, Rice K, Huang W, Atmar RL, Palzkill T. Engineering Specificity from Broad to Narrow: Design of a ß-Lactamase Inhibitory Protein (BLIP) Variant That Exclusively Binds and Detects KPC ß-Lactamase. ACS Infect Dis. 2016 12 09; 2(12):969-979. PMID: 27756125.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Stojanoski V, Sankaran B, Prasad BV, Poirel L, Nordmann P, Palzkill T. Structure of the catalytic domain of the colistin resistance enzyme MCR-1. BMC Biol. 2016 Sep 21; 14(1):81. PMID: 27655155.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Sun Z, Mehta SC, Adamski CJ, Gibbs RA, Palzkill T. Deep Sequencing of Random Mutant Libraries Reveals the Active Site of the Narrow Specificity CphA Metallo-ß-Lactamase is Fragile to Mutations. Sci Rep. 2016 09 12; 6:33195. PMID: 27616327.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Prasad BV, Shanker S, Muhaxhiri Z, Deng L, Choi JM, Estes MK, Song Y, Palzkill T, Atmar RL. Antiviral targets of human noroviruses. Curr Opin Virol. 2016 06; 18:117-25. PMID: 27318434.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Jacoby GA, Bonomo RA, Bradford PA, Bush K, Doi Y, Feldgarden M, Haft D, Klimke W, Nordmann P, Palzkill T, Poirel L, Prasad A, Rossolini GM, Walsh T. Comment on: Resistance gene naming and numbering: is it a new gene or not? J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 09; 71(9):2677-8. PMID: 27261266.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Stojanoski V, Adamski CJ, Hu L, Mehta SC, Sankaran B, Zwart P, Prasad BV, Palzkill T. Removal of the Side Chain at the Active-Site Serine by a Glycine Substitution Increases the Stability of a Wide Range of Serine ß-Lactamases by Relieving Steric Strain. Biochemistry. 2016 05 03; 55(17):2479-90. PMID: 27073009.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Song X, Chen J, Zhao M, Zhang C, Yu Y, Lonard DM, Chow DC, Palzkill T, Xu J, O'Malley BW, Wang J. Development of potent small-molecule inhibitors to drug the undruggable steroid receptor coactivator-3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 May 03; 113(18):4970-5. PMID: 27084884.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Kou B, Huang W, Neill FH, Palzkill T, Estes MK, Atmar RL. Norovirus Antigen Detection with a Combination of Monoclonal and Single-Chain Antibodies. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Dec; 53(12):3916-8. PMID: 26447115.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Patel MP, Fryszczyn BG, Palzkill T. Characterization of the global stabilizing substitution A77V and its role in the evolution of CTX-M ß-lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Nov; 59(11):6741-8. PMID: 26282414.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Wang L, Yu Y, Chow DC, Yan F, Hsu CC, Stossi F, Mancini MA, Palzkill T, Liao L, Zhou S, Xu J, Lonard DM, O'Malley BW. Characterization of a Steroid Receptor Coactivator Small Molecule Stimulator that Overstimulates Cancer Cells and Leads to Cell Stress and Death. Cancer Cell. 2015 Aug 10; 28(2):240-52. PMID: 26267537.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Mehta SC, Rice K, Palzkill T. Natural Variants of the KPC-2 Carbapenemase have Evolved Increased Catalytic Efficiency for Ceftazidime Hydrolysis at the Cost of Enzyme Stability. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jun; 11(6):e1004949. PMID: 26030609.
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    24. Stojanoski V, Chow DC, Fryszczyn B, Hu L, Nordmann P, Poirel L, Sankaran B, Prasad BV, Palzkill T. Structural Basis for Different Substrate Profiles of Two Closely Related Class D ß-Lactamases and Their Inhibition by Halogens. Biochemistry. 2015 Jun 02; 54(21):3370-80. PMID: 25938261.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Abriata LA, Palzkill T, Dal Peraro M. How structural and physicochemical determinants shape sequence constraints in a functional enzyme. PLoS One. 2015; 10(2):e0118684. PMID: 25706742.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Stojanoski V, Chow DC, Hu L, Sankaran B, Gilbert HF, Prasad BV, Palzkill T. A triple mutant in the O-loop of TEM-1 ß-lactamase changes the substrate profile via a large conformational change and an altered general base for catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2015 Apr 17; 290(16):10382-94. PMID: 25713062.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Humphreys AF, Tan J, Peng R, Benton SM, Qin X, Worley KC, Mikulski RL, Chow DC, Palzkill TG, Ling PD. Generation and characterization of antibodies against Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) IgG, IgM, and IgA. PLoS One. 2015; 10(2):e0116318. PMID: 25658336.
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    28. Adamski CJ, Cardenas AM, Brown NG, Horton LB, Sankaran B, Prasad BV, Gilbert HF, Palzkill T. Molecular basis for the catalytic specificity of the CTX-M extended-spectrum ß-lactamases. Biochemistry. 2015 Jan 20; 54(2):447-57. PMID: 25489790.
      View in: PubMed
    29. He B, Lanz RB, Fiskus W, Geng C, Yi P, Hartig SM, Rajapakshe K, Shou J, Wei L, Shah SS, Foley C, Chew SA, Eedunuri VK, Bedoya DJ, Feng Q, Minami T, Mitsiades CS, Frolov A, Weigel NL, Hilsenbeck SG, Rosen DG, Palzkill T, Ittmann MM, Song Y, Coarfa C, O'Malley BW, Mitsiades N. GATA2 facilitates steroid receptor coactivator recruitment to the androgen receptor complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Dec 23; 111(51):18261-6. PMID: 25489091.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Kou B, Crawford SE, Ajami NJ, Czakó R, Neill FH, Tanaka TN, Kitamoto N, Palzkill TG, Estes MK, Atmar RL. Characterization of cross-reactive norovirus-specific monoclonal antibodies. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015 Feb; 22(2):160-7. PMID: 25428247.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Viskovska M, Anish R, Hu L, Chow DC, Hurwitz AM, Brown NG, Palzkill T, Estes MK, Prasad BV. Probing the sites of interactions of rotaviral proteins involved in replication. J Virol. 2014 Nov; 88(21):12866-81. PMID: 25165107.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Long SW, Olsen RJ, Mehta SC, Palzkill T, Cernoch PL, Perez KK, Musick WL, Rosato AE, Musser JM. PBP2a mutations causing high-level Ceftaroline resistance in clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Nov; 58(11):6668-74. PMID: 25155594.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Fryszczyn BG, Adamski CJ, Brown NG, Rice K, Huang W, Palzkill T. Role of ß-lactamase residues in a common interface for binding the structurally unrelated inhibitory proteins BLIP and BLIP-II. Protein Sci. 2014 Sep; 23(9):1235-46. PMID: 24947275.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Huang W, Samanta M, Crawford SE, Estes MK, Neill FH, Atmar RL, Palzkill T. Identification of human single-chain antibodies with broad reactivity for noroviruses. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2014 Oct; 27(10):339-49. PMID: 24946948.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Yan F, Yu Y, Chow DC, Palzkill T, Madoux F, Hodder P, Chase P, Griffin PR, O'Malley BW, Lonard DM. Identification of verrucarin a as a potent and selective steroid receptor coactivator-3 small molecule inhibitor. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95243. PMID: 24743578.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Wang Y, Lonard DM, Yu Y, Chow DC, Palzkill TG, Wang J, Qi R, Matzuk AJ, Song X, Madoux F, Hodder P, Chase P, Griffin PR, Zhou S, Liao L, Xu J, O'Malley BW. Bufalin is a potent small-molecule inhibitor of the steroid receptor coactivators SRC-3 and SRC-1. Cancer Res. 2014 Mar 01; 74(5):1506-1517. PMID: 24390736.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Dave K, Palzkill T, Pratt RF. Neutral ß-Lactams Inactivate High Molecular Mass Penicillin-Binding Proteins of Class B1, Including PBP2a of MRSA. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2014 Feb 13; 5(2):154-7. PMID: 24900789.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Deng L, Muhaxhiri Z, Estes MK, Palzkill T, Prasad BV, Song Y. Synthesis, Activity and Structure-Activity Relationship of Noroviral Protease Inhibitors. Medchemcomm. 2013 Oct; 4(10). PMID: 24244836.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Brown NG, Chow DC, Ruprecht KE, Palzkill T. Identification of the ß-lactamase inhibitor protein-II (BLIP-II) interface residues essential for binding affinity and specificity for class A ß-lactamases. J Biol Chem. 2013 Jun 14; 288(24):17156-66. PMID: 23625930.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Brown NG, Chow DC, Palzkill T. BLIP-II is a highly potent inhibitor of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-2). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Jul; 57(7):3398-401. PMID: 23587951.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Rogers JD, Ajami NJ, Fryszczyn BG, Estes MK, Atmar RL, Palzkill T. Identification and characterization of a peptide affinity reagent for detection of noroviruses in clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Jun; 51(6):1803-8. PMID: 23554202.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Muhaxhiri Z, Deng L, Shanker S, Sankaran B, Estes MK, Palzkill T, Song Y, Prasad BV. Structural basis of substrate specificity and protease inhibition in Norwalk virus. J Virol. 2013 Apr; 87(8):4281-92. PMID: 23365454.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Palzkill T. Metallo-ß-lactamase structure and function. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013 Jan; 1277:91-104. PMID: 23163348.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Deng Z, Huang W, Bakkalbasi E, Brown NG, Adamski CJ, Rice K, Muzny D, Gibbs RA, Palzkill T. Deep sequencing of systematic combinatorial libraries reveals ß-lactamase sequence constraints at high resolution. J Mol Biol. 2012 Dec 07; 424(3-4):150-67. PMID: 23017428.
      View in: PubMed
    45. McWilliams BD, Palzkill T, Weinstock GM, Petrosino JF. Identification of novel and cross-species seroreactive proteins from Bacillus anthracis using a ligation-independent cloning-based, SOS-inducible expression system. Microb Pathog. 2012 Nov-Dec; 53(5-6):250-8. PMID: 22975444.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Horton LB, Shanker S, Mikulski R, Brown NG, Phillips KJ, Lykissa E, Venkataram Prasad BV, Palzkill T. Mutagenesis of zinc ligand residue Cys221 reveals plasticity in the IMP-1 metallo-ß-lactamase active site. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Nov; 56(11):5667-77. PMID: 22908171.
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    47. Chen P, Horton LB, Mikulski RL, Deng L, Sundriyal S, Palzkill T, Song Y. 2-Substituted 4,5-dihydrothiazole-4-carboxylic acids are novel inhibitors of metallo-ß-lactamases. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Oct 01; 22(19):6229-32. PMID: 22921080.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Hu L, Chow DC, Patton JT, Palzkill T, Estes MK, Prasad BV. Crystallographic Analysis of Rotavirus NSP2-RNA Complex Reveals Specific Recognition of 5' GG Sequence for RTPase Activity. J Virol. 2012 Oct; 86(19):10547-57. PMID: 22811529.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Cai G, Deng L, Fryszczyn BG, Brown NG, Liu Z, Jiang H, Palzkill T, Song Y. Thermodynamic Investigation of Inhibitor Binding to 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-Phosphate Reductoisomerase. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2012 Jun 14; 3(6):496-500. PMID: 23050057.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Shelburne SA, Olsen RJ, Makthal N, Brown NG, Sahasrabhojane P, Watkins EM, Palzkill T, Musser JM, Kumaraswami M. An amino-terminal signal peptide of Vfr protein negatively influences RopB-dependent SpeB expression and attenuates virulence in Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol Microbiol. 2011 Dec; 82(6):1481-95. PMID: 22040048.
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    51. Wang Y, Lonard DM, Yu Y, Chow DC, Palzkill TG, O'Malley BW. Small molecule inhibition of the steroid receptor coactivators, SRC-3 and SRC-1. Mol Endocrinol. 2011 Dec; 25(12):2041-53. PMID: 22053001.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Yuan J, Cardenas AM, Gilbert HF, Palzkill T. Determination of the amino acid sequence requirements for catalysis by the highly proficient orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase. Protein Sci. 2011 Nov; 20(11):1891-906. PMID: 21898650.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Fryszczyn BG, Brown NG, Huang W, Balderas MA, Palzkill T. Use of periplasmic target protein capture for phage display engineering of tight-binding protein-protein interactions. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2011 Nov; 24(11):819-28. PMID: 21900304.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Brown NG, Horton LB, Huang W, Vongpunsawad S, Palzkill T. Analysis of the functional contributions of Asn233 in metallo-ß-lactamase IMP-1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Dec; 55(12):5696-702. PMID: 21896903.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Brown NG, Chow DC, Sankaran B, Zwart P, Prasad BV, Palzkill T. Analysis of the binding forces driving the tight interactions between beta-lactamase inhibitory protein-II (BLIP-II) and class A beta-lactamases. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 16; 286(37):32723-35. PMID: 21775426.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Kim JJ, Casteel DE, Huang G, Kwon TH, Ren RK, Zwart P, Headd JJ, Brown NG, Chow DC, Palzkill T, Kim C. Co-crystal structures of PKG Iß (92-227) with cGMP and cAMP reveal the molecular details of cyclic-nucleotide binding. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 19; 6(4):e18413. PMID: 21526164.
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    57. Yuan J, Chow DC, Huang W, Palzkill T. Identification of a ß-lactamase inhibitory protein variant that is a potent inhibitor of Staphylococcus PC1 ß-lactamase. J Mol Biol. 2011 Mar 11; 406(5):730-44. PMID: 21238457.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Gao H, Wang X, Yang ZK, Chen J, Liang Y, Chen H, Palzkill T, Zhou J. Physiological roles of ArcA, Crp, and EtrA and their interactive control on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 28; 5(12):e15295. PMID: 21203399.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Brown NG, Pennington JM, Huang W, Ayvaz T, Palzkill T. Multiple global suppressors of protein stability defects facilitate the evolution of extended-spectrum TEM ß-lactamases. J Mol Biol. 2010 Dec 17; 404(5):832-46. PMID: 20955714.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Brown NG, Palzkill T. Identification and characterization of beta-lactamase inhibitor protein-II (BLIP-II) interactions with beta-lactamases using phage display. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2010 Jun; 23(6):469-78. PMID: 20308189.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Brown NG, Shanker S, Prasad BV, Palzkill T. Structural and biochemical evidence that a TEM-1 beta-lactamase N170G active site mutant acts via substrate-assisted catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2009 Nov 27; 284(48):33703-12. PMID: 19812041.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Marciano DC, Brown NG, Palzkill T. Analysis of the plasticity of location of the Arg244 positive charge within the active site of the TEM-1 beta-lactamase. Protein Sci. 2009 Oct; 18(10):2080-9. PMID: 19672877.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Yuan J, Huang W, Chow DC, Palzkill T. Fine mapping of the sequence requirements for binding of beta-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) to TEM-1 beta-lactamase using a genetic screen for BLIP function. J Mol Biol. 2009 Jun 05; 389(2):401-12. PMID: 19389404.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Wang J, Palzkill T, Chow DC. Structural insight into the kinetics and DeltaCp of interactions between TEM-1 beta-lactamase and beta-lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP). J Biol Chem. 2009 Jan 02; 284(1):595-609. PMID: 18840610.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Marciano DC, Pennington JM, Wang X, Wang J, Chen Y, Thomas VL, Shoichet BK, Palzkill T. Genetic and structural characterization of an L201P global suppressor substitution in TEM-1 beta-lactamase. J Mol Biol. 2008 Dec 05; 384(1):151-64. PMID: 18822298.
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    66. Gao H, Pattison D, Yan T, Klingeman DM, Wang X, Petrosino J, Hemphill L, Wan X, Leaphart AB, Weinstock GM, Palzkill T, Zhou J. Generation and validation of a Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 clone set for protein expression and phage display. PLoS One. 2008 Aug 20; 3(8):e2983. PMID: 18714347.
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    67. Wang X, Gao H, Shen Y, Weinstock GM, Zhou J, Palzkill T. A high-throughput percentage-of-binding strategy to measure binding energies in DNA-protein interactions: application to genome-scale site discovery. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Sep; 36(15):4863-71. PMID: 18653527.
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    68. Titz B, Rajagopala SV, Goll J, Häuser R, McKevitt MT, Palzkill T, Uetz P. The binary protein interactome of Treponema pallidum--the syphilis spirochete. PLoS One. 2008 May 28; 3(5):e2292. PMID: 18509523.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Matejková P, Strouhal M, Smajs D, Norris SJ, Palzkill T, Petrosino JF, Sodergren E, Norton JE, Singh J, Richmond TA, Molla MN, Albert TJ, Weinstock GM. Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum strain SS14 determined with oligonucleotide arrays. BMC Microbiol. 2008 May 15; 8:76. PMID: 18482458.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Brinkman MB, McGill MA, Pettersson J, Rogers A, Matejková P, Smajs D, Weinstock GM, Norris SJ, Palzkill T. A novel Treponema pallidum antigen, TP0136, is an outer membrane protein that binds human fibronectin. Infect Immun. 2008 May; 76(5):1848-57. PMID: 18332212.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Gao H, Wang X, Yang ZK, Palzkill T, Zhou J. Probing regulon of ArcA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 by integrated genomic analyses. BMC Genomics. 2008 Jan 25; 9:42. PMID: 18221523.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Hyser JM, Zeng CQ, Beharry Z, Palzkill T, Estes MK. Epitope mapping and use of epitope-specific antisera to characterize the VP5* binding site in rotavirus SA11 NSP4. Virology. 2008 Mar 30; 373(1):211-28. PMID: 18164740.
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    73. Rajagopala SV, Titz B, Goll J, Parrish JR, Wohlbold K, McKevitt MT, Palzkill T, Mori H, Finley RL, Uetz P. The protein network of bacterial motility. Mol Syst Biol. 2007; 3:128. PMID: 17667950.
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    74. Marciano DC, Karkouti OY, Palzkill T. A fitness cost associated with the antibiotic resistance enzyme SME-1 beta-lactamase. Genetics. 2007 Aug; 176(4):2381-92. PMID: 17565956.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Wang J, Zhang Z, Palzkill T, Chow DC. Thermodynamic investigation of the role of contact residues of beta-lactamase-inhibitory protein for binding to TEM-1 beta-lactamase. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 15; 282(24):17676-84. PMID: 17430899.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Holloway AK, Palzkill T, Bull JJ. Experimental evolution of gene duplicates in a bacterial plasmid model. J Mol Evol. 2007 Feb; 64(2):215-22. PMID: 17211548.
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    77. Cushman I, Palzkill T, Moore MS. Using peptide arrays to define nuclear carrier binding sites on nucleoporins. Methods. 2006 Aug; 39(4):329-41. PMID: 16908185.
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    78. Brinkman MB, McKevitt M, McLoughlin M, Perez C, Howell J, Weinstock GM, Norris SJ, Palzkill T. Reactivity of antibodies from syphilis patients to a protein array representing the Treponema pallidum proteome. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Mar; 44(3):888-91. PMID: 16517872.
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    79. Majiduddin FK, Palzkill T. Amino acid residues that contribute to substrate specificity of class A beta-lactamase SME-1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Aug; 49(8):3421-7. PMID: 16048956.
      View in: PubMed
    80. McKevitt M, Brinkman MB, McLoughlin M, Perez C, Howell JK, Weinstock GM, Norris SJ, Palzkill T. Genome scale identification of Treponema pallidum antigens. Infect Immun. 2005 Jul; 73(7):4445-50. PMID: 15972547.
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    81. Adediran SA, Zhang Z, Nukaga M, Palzkill T, Pratt RF. The D-methyl group in beta-lactamase evolution: evidence from the Y221G and GC1 mutants of the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99. Biochemistry. 2005 May 24; 44(20):7543-52. PMID: 15895997.
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    82. Beharry Z, Palzkill T. Functional analysis of active site residues of the fosfomycin resistance enzyme FosA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Biol Chem. 2005 May 06; 280(18):17786-91. PMID: 15741169.
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    83. Smajs D, McKevitt M, Howell JK, Norris SJ, Cai WW, Palzkill T, Weinstock GM. Transcriptome of Treponema pallidum: gene expression profile during experimental rabbit infection. J Bacteriol. 2005 Mar; 187(5):1866-74. PMID: 15716460.
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    84. Materon IC, Beharry Z, Huang W, Perez C, Palzkill T. Analysis of the context dependent sequence requirements of active site residues in the metallo-beta-lactamase IMP-1. J Mol Biol. 2004 Nov 26; 344(3):653-63. PMID: 15533435.
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    85. Zhang Z, Palzkill T. Dissecting the protein-protein interface between beta-lactamase inhibitory protein and class A beta-lactamases. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 08; 279(41):42860-6. PMID: 15284234.
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    86. Mustafi D, Hofer JE, Huang W, Palzkill T, Makinen MW. Chromophoric spin-labeled beta-lactam antibiotics for ENDOR structural characterization of reaction intermediates of class A and class C beta-lactamases. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2004 May; 60(6):1279-89. PMID: 15134725.
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    87. Buynak JD, Chen H, Vogeti L, Gadhachanda VR, Buchanan CA, Palzkill T, Shaw RW, Spencer J, Walsh TR. Penicillin-derived inhibitors that simultaneously target both metallo- and serine-beta-lactamases. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Mar 08; 14(5):1299-304. PMID: 14980686.
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    88. Beharry Z, Chen H, Gadhachanda VR, Buynak JD, Palzkill T. Evaluation of penicillin-based inhibitors of the class A and B beta-lactamases from Bacillus anthracis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Jan 16; 313(3):541-5. PMID: 14697223.
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    89. Huang W, Beharry Z, Zhang Z, Palzkill T. A broad-spectrum peptide inhibitor of beta-lactamase identified using phage display and peptide arrays. Protein Eng. 2003 Nov; 16(11):853-60. PMID: 14631075.
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    90. Zhang Z, Palzkill T. Determinants of binding affinity and specificity for the interaction of TEM-1 and SME-1 beta-lactamase with beta-lactamase inhibitory protein. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 14; 278(46):45706-12. PMID: 12933802.
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    91. McKevitt M, Patel K, Smajs D, Marsh M, McLoughlin M, Norris SJ, Weinstock GM, Palzkill T. Systematic cloning of Treponema pallidum open reading frames for protein expression and antigen discovery. Genome Res. 2003 Jul; 13(7):1665-74. PMID: 12805273.
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    92. Materon IC, Queenan AM, Koehler TM, Bush K, Palzkill T. Biochemical characterization of beta-lactamases Bla1 and Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Jun; 47(6):2040-2. PMID: 12760895.
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    93. Majiduddin FK, Palzkill T. Amino acid sequence requirements at residues 69 and 238 for the SME-1 beta-lactamase to confer resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Mar; 47(3):1062-7. PMID: 12604542.
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    94. Majiduddin FK, Palzkill T. An analysis of why highly similar enzymes evolve differently. Genetics. 2003 Feb; 163(2):457-66. PMID: 12618385.
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    95. Rudgers GW, Palzkill T. Minimization of proteins by random fragmentation and selection. Methods Mol Biol. 2003; 230:71-81. PMID: 12824570.
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    96. Reid SD, Green NM, Sylva GL, Voyich JM, Stenseth ET, DeLeo FR, Palzkill T, Low DE, Hill HR, Musser JM. Postgenomic analysis of four novel antigens of group a streptococcus: growth phase-dependent gene transcription and human serologic response. J Bacteriol. 2002 Nov; 184(22):6316-24. PMID: 12399501.
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    97. Majiduddin FK, Materon IC, Palzkill TG. Molecular analysis of beta-lactamase structure and function. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002 Jul; 292(2):127-37. PMID: 12195735.
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    98. Palzkill T. Finding new antibiotics: the power of computational methods. Drug Discov Today. 2002 Mar 15; 7(6):347-8. PMID: 11893541.
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    99. Smajs D, McKevitt M, Wang L, Howell JK, Norris SJ, Palzkill T, Weinstock GM. BAC library of T. pallidum DNA in E. coli. Genome Res. 2002 Mar; 12(3):515-22. PMID: 11875041.
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    100. Materon IC, Palzkill T. Identification of residues critical for metallo-beta-lactamase function by codon randomization and selection. Protein Sci. 2001 Dec; 10(12):2556-65. PMID: 11714924.
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    101. Rudgers GW, Huang W, Palzkill T. Binding properties of a peptide derived from beta-lactamase inhibitory protein. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Dec; 45(12):3279-86. PMID: 11709298.
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    102. Zhang Z, Yu Y, Musser JM, Palzkill T. Amino acid sequence determinants of extended spectrum cephalosporin hydrolysis by the class C P99 beta-lactamase. J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 07; 276(49):46568-74. PMID: 11591698.
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    103. Rudgers GW, Palzkill T. Protein minimization by random fragmentation and selection. Protein Eng. 2001 Jul; 14(7):487-92. PMID: 11522922.
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    104. Sideraki V, Huang W, Palzkill T, Gilbert HF. A secondary drug resistance mutation of TEM-1 beta-lactamase that suppresses misfolding and aggregation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jan 02; 98(1):283-8. PMID: 11114163.
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    105. Palzkill T. Impending doom: antibiotic exposure and bacterial gene expression. Genome Res. 2001 Jan; 11(1):1-2. PMID: 11156610.
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    106. Hoe NP, Kordari P, Cole R, Liu M, Palzkill T, Huang W, McLellan D, Adams GJ, Hu M, Vuopio-Varkila J, Cate TR, Pichichero ME, Edwards KM, Eskola J, Low DE, Musser JM. Human immune response to streptococcal inhibitor of complement, a serotype M1 group A Streptococcus extracellular protein involved in epidemics. J Infect Dis. 2000 Nov; 182(5):1425-36. PMID: 11015234.
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    107. Huang W, McKevitt M, Palzkill T. Use of the arabinose p(bad) promoter for tightly regulated display of proteins on bacteriophage. Gene. 2000 Jun 27; 251(2):187-97. PMID: 10876095.
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    108. Huang W, Zhang Z, Palzkill T. Design of potent beta-lactamase inhibitors by phage display of beta-lactamase inhibitory protein. J Biol Chem. 2000 May 19; 275(20):14964-8. PMID: 10748011.
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    109. Savoie A, Sanschagrin F, Palzkill T, Voyer N, Levesque RC. Structure-function analysis of alpha-helix H4 using PSE-4 as a model enzyme representative of class A beta-lactamases. Protein Eng. 2000 Apr; 13(4):267-74. PMID: 10810158.
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    110. Petrosino JF, Baker M, Palzkill T. Susceptibility of beta-lactamase to core amino acid substitutions. Protein Eng. 1999 Sep; 12(9):761-9. PMID: 10506286.
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    111. Rudgers GW, Palzkill T. Identification of residues in beta-lactamase critical for binding beta-lactamase inhibitory protein. J Biol Chem. 1999 Mar 12; 274(11):6963-71. PMID: 10066750.
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    112. Petrosino J, Rudgers G, Gilbert H, Palzkill T. Contributions of aspartate 49 and phenylalanine 142 residues of a tight binding inhibitory protein of beta-lactamases. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 22; 274(4):2394-400. PMID: 9891008.
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    113. Huang W, Petrosino J, Palzkill T. Display of functional beta-lactamase inhibitory protein on the surface of M13 bacteriophage. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Nov; 42(11):2893-7. PMID: 9797222.
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    114. Palzkill T, Huang W, Weinstock GM. Mapping protein-ligand interactions using whole genome phage display libraries. Gene. 1998 Oct 09; 221(1):79-83. PMID: 9852952.
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    115. Cantu C, Palzkill T. The role of residue 238 of TEM-1 beta-lactamase in the hydrolysis of extended-spectrum antibiotics. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 09; 273(41):26603-9. PMID: 9756899.
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    116. Therrien C, Sanschagrin F, Palzkill T, Levesque RC. Roles of amino acids 161 to 179 in the PSE-4 omega loop in substrate specificity and in resistance to ceftazidime. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Oct; 42(10):2576-83. PMID: 9756758.
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    117. Sabbagh Y, Thériault E, Sanschagrin F, Voyer N, Palzkill T, Levesque RC. Characterization of a PSE-4 mutant with different properties in relation to penicillanic acid sulfones: importance of residues 216 to 218 in class A beta-lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Sep; 42(9):2319-25. PMID: 9736556.
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    118. Petrosino J, Cantu C, Palzkill T. beta-Lactamases: protein evolution in real time. Trends Microbiol. 1998 Aug; 6(8):323-7. PMID: 9746943.
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    119. Cantu C, Huang W, Palzkill T. Cephalosporin substrate specificity determinants of TEM-1 beta-lactamase. J Biol Chem. 1997 Nov 14; 272(46):29144-50. PMID: 9360991.
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    120. Huang W, Palzkill T. A natural polymorphism in beta-lactamase is a global suppressor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Aug 05; 94(16):8801-6. PMID: 9238058.
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    121. Cantu C, Huang W, Palzkill T. Selection and characterization of amino acid substitutions at residues 237-240 of TEM-1 beta-lactamase with altered substrate specificity for aztreonam and ceftazidime. J Biol Chem. 1996 Sep 13; 271(37):22538-45. PMID: 8798421.
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    122. Huang W, Petrosino J, Hirsch M, Shenkin PS, Palzkill T. Amino acid sequence determinants of beta-lactamase structure and activity. J Mol Biol. 1996 May 17; 258(4):688-703. PMID: 8637002.
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    123. Vanhove M, Raquet X, Palzkill T, Pain RH, Frère JM. The rate-limiting step in the folding of the cis-Pro167Thr mutant of TEM-1 beta-lactamase is the trans to cis isomerization of a non-proline peptide bond. Proteins. 1996 May; 25(1):104-11. PMID: 8727322.
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    124. Petrosino JF, Palzkill T. Systematic mutagenesis of the active site omega loop of TEM-1 beta-lactamase. J Bacteriol. 1996 Apr; 178(7):1821-8. PMID: 8606154.
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    125. Palzkill T, Thomson KS, Sanders CC, Moland ES, Huang W, Milligan TW. New variant of TEM-10 beta-lactamase gene produced by a clinical isolate of proteus mirabilis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995 May; 39(5):1199-200. PMID: 7625817.
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    126. Huang W, Le QQ, LaRocco M, Palzkill T. Effect of threonine-to-methionine substitution at position 265 on structure and function of TEM-1 beta-lactamase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994 Oct; 38(10):2266-9. PMID: 7840555.
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    127. Venkatachalam KV, Huang W, LaRocco M, Palzkill T. Characterization of TEM-1 beta-lactamase mutants from positions 238 to 241 with increased catalytic efficiency for ceftazidime. J Biol Chem. 1994 Sep 23; 269(38):23444-50. PMID: 8089110.
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    128. Palzkill T, Le QQ, Venkatachalam KV, LaRocco M, Ocera H. Evolution of antibiotic resistance: several different amino acid substitutions in an active site loop alter the substrate profile of beta-lactamase. Mol Microbiol. 1994 Apr; 12(2):217-29. PMID: 8057847.
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    129. Klann AG, Hull RA, Palzkill T, Hull SI. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis reveals residues involved in binding of pap-3-encoded pili. J Bacteriol. 1994 Apr; 176(8):2312-7. PMID: 7908904.
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    130. Clark CD, Palzkill T, Botstein D. Systematic mutagenesis of the yeast mating pheromone receptor third intracellular loop. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 25; 269(12):8831-41. PMID: 8132618.
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    131. Palzkill T, Le QQ, Wong A, Botstein D. Selection of functional signal peptide cleavage sites from a library of random sequences. J Bacteriol. 1994 Feb; 176(3):563-8. PMID: 8300511.
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    132. Palzkill T, Botstein D. Probing beta-lactamase structure and function using random replacement mutagenesis. Proteins. 1992 Sep; 14(1):29-44. PMID: 1329081.
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    133. Naumovski L, Quinn JP, Miyashiro D, Patel M, Bush K, Singer SB, Graves D, Palzkill T, Arvin AM. Outbreak of ceftazidime resistance due to a novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in isolates from cancer patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992 Sep; 36(9):1991-6. PMID: 1416892.
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    134. Palzkill T, Botstein D. Identification of amino acid substitutions that alter the substrate specificity of TEM-1 beta-lactamase. J Bacteriol. 1992 Aug; 174(16):5237-43. PMID: 1644749.
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    135. Newlon CS, Lipchitz LR, Collins I, Deshpande A, Devenish RJ, Green RP, Klein HL, Palzkill TG, Ren RB, Synn S, et al. Analysis of a circular derivative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III: a physical map and identification and location of ARS elements. Genetics. 1991 Oct; 129(2):343-57. PMID: 1683846.
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    136. Palzkill TG, Newlon CS. A yeast replication origin consists of multiple copies of a small conserved sequence. Cell. 1988 May 06; 53(3):441-50. PMID: 3284655.
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    137. Palzkill TG, Oliver SG, Newlon CS. DNA sequence analysis of ARS elements from chromosome III of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: identification of a new conserved sequence. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Aug 11; 14(15):6247-64. PMID: 3529036.
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    138. Nickla H, Anderson J, Palzkill T. Enzymes involved in oxygen detoxification during development of Drosophila melanogaster. Experientia. 1983 Jun 15; 39(6):610-2. PMID: 6406261.
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