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LAURENCE MCCULLOUGH

TitleDistinguished Emeritus Professor
InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
DepartmentCenter for Medical Ethics and Health Policy
DivisionCtr for Med Ethics & Health Policy
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    Other Positions
    TitleDistinguished Emeritus Professor
    InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
    DepartmentDepartment of Medicine
    DivisionMedicine-General Medicine

    TitleDistinguished Emeritus Professor
    InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
    DepartmentDepartment of Family and Community Medicine
    DivisionFamily & Community Medicine

    TitleDistinguished Emeritus Professor
    InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
    DepartmentHuffington Center on Aging
    DivisionHuffington Ctr on Aging


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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Goodnight WH, Bahtiyar O, Bennett KA, Emery SP, Lillegard JB, Fisher A, Goldstein R, Jatres J, Lim FY, McCullough L, Moehrlen U, Moldenhauer JS, Moon-Grady AJ, Ruano R, Skupski DW, Thom E, Treadwell MC, Tsao K, Wagner AJ, Waqar LN, Zaretsky M. Subsequent pregnancy outcomes after open maternal-fetal surgery for myelomeningocele. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 May; 220(5):494.e1-494.e7. PMID: 30885769.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Grünebaum A, McCullough LB, Arabin B, Chervenak FA. Critical appraisal of the proposed defenses for planned home birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Jan 14. PMID: 30653945.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Academic physicians as factory workers: identifying and preventing alienation of labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Jun; 220(6):558-561. PMID: 30629909.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Shamshirsaz AA, Sellner AA, Erfani H, Aagaard KM, Nassr AA, Pereira S, Belfort MA, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. An Ethical Framework for Research in Maternal-Fetal Intervention in the Presence of Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus or Hepatitis B and C Infection. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Jan; 133(1):48-52. PMID: 30531563.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Dayyabu AL, Murtala Y, Grünebaum A, McCullough LB, Arabin B, Levene MI, Brent RL, Monni G, Sen C, Makatsariya A, Chervenak FA. Midwife-assisted planned home birth: an essential component of improving the safety of childbirth in Sub-Saharan Africa. J Perinat Med. 2018 Dec 19; 47(1):16-21. PMID: 29813034.
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    6. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Written consent should not be obtained at the time of emergency caesarean section: AGAINST: Written consent should be obtained. BJOG. 2018 Dec; 125(13):1756. PMID: 30426655.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Božanovic T, Pejovic T, Chervenak FA, McCullough L, Ljubic A. Professionally responsible management of gynecologic cancer in pregnancy when clinical resources are unavoidably limited. J Perinat Med. 2018 Sep 25; 46(7):811-813. PMID: 29381474.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Hale RW. Guild interests: an insidious threat to professionalism in obstetrics and gynecology. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Dec; 219(6):581-584. PMID: 30240659.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Grünebaum A. Preventing incremental drift away from professionalism in graduate medical education. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Dec; 219(6):589.e1-589.e3. PMID: 30240658.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Farr A, Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Grünebaum A. Placentophagy among women planning community births in the United States: Frequency, rationale, and associated neonatal outcomes. Birth. 2019 03; 46(1):201-202. PMID: 30058077.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Editorial. J Perinat Med. 2018 Apr 25; 46(3):235-236. PMID: 29624502.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Professional responsibility of transparency of obstetricians practicing in religious hospitals. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 02; 218(2):159-160. PMID: 29422256.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Brett AS, McCullough LB. Getting Past Words: Futility and the Professional Ethics of Life-Sustaining Treatment. Perspect Biol Med. 2018; 60(3):319-327. PMID: 29375059.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Chervenak FA, Makatsariya A, Degtyareva M, Savelyeva G, Bitsadze V, Strizhakov A, McCullough LB. Respect for professors: an often underappreciated component of professionalism in medical education. J Perinat Med. 2017 Dec 20; 45(9):1079-1080. PMID: 29182514.
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    15. Chervenak FA, Makatsariya A, Bitsadze V, McCullough LB. Perinatal critical care and ethics in perinatal medicine: the role of the perinatologist. J Perinat Med. 2017 Dec 20; 45(9):991-997. PMID: 28072569.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Chervenak FA, Asfaw TS, Shaktman BD, McCullough LB. Gender Diversity in Residency Training: The Case for Affirmative Inclusion. J Grad Med Educ. 2017 Dec; 9(6):685-687. PMID: 29270254.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Dudenhausen J. Fetal analysis with invasive method (FA-I) and fetal analysis with non-invasive method (FA-NI): replacing current, deceptively imprecise clinical nomenclature. J Perinat Med. 2017 Nov 27; 45(8):985-987. PMID: 29031022.
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    18. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. The ethics of maternal-fetal surgery. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018 02; 23(1):64-67. PMID: 28986215.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Moaddab A, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA, Stark L, Schulkin J, Dildy GA, Raine SP, Shamshirsaz AA. A survey of honor-related practices among US obstetricians and gynecologists. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2017 Nov; 139(2):164-169. PMID: 28796892.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Farr A, Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Baergen RN, Grünebaum A. Human placentophagy: a review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 04; 218(4):401.e1-401.e11. PMID: 28859955.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Moaddab A, Chervenak FA, Mccullough LB, Sangi-Haghpeykar H, Shamshirsaz AA, Schutt A, Arian SE, Fox KA, Dildy GA, Shamshirsaz AA. Effect of advanced maternal age on maternal and neonatal outcomes in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2017 Sep; 216:178-183. PMID: 28783553.
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    22. Thomas AN, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA, Placencia FX. Evidence-based, ethically justified counseling for fetal bilateral renal agenesis. J Perinat Med. 2017 Jul 26; 45(5):585-594. PMID: 28222038.
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    23. Nguyen MT, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. The importance of clinically and ethically fine-tuning decision-making about cesarean delivery. J Perinat Med. 2017 Jul 26; 45(5):551-557. PMID: 27780155.
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    24. Chen MJ, McCann-Crosby B, Gunn S, Georgiadis P, Placencia F, Mann D, Axelrad M, Karaviti LP, McCullough LB. Fluidity models in ancient Greece and current practices of sex assignment. Semin Perinatol. 2017 06; 41(4):206-213. PMID: 28478088.
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    25. Grünebaum A, McCullough LB, Arabin B, Dudenhausen J, Orosz B, Chervenak FA. Underlying causes of neonatal deaths in term singleton pregnancies: home births versus hospital births in the United States. J Perinat Med. 2017 Apr 01; 45(3):349-357. PMID: 27754969.
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    26. Grünebaum A, McCullough LB, Arabin B, Chervenak FA. Serious adverse neonatal outcomes such as 5-minute Apgar score of zero and seizures or severe neurologic dysfunction are increased in planned home births after cesarean delivery. PLoS One. 2017; 12(3):e0173952. PMID: 28319128.
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    27. McCullough LB. Philosophical Provocation: The Lifeblood of Clinical Ethics. J Med Philos. 2017 Feb; 42(1):1-6. PMID: 28064252.
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    28. Grünebaum A, McCullough LB, Sapra KJ, Arabin B, Chervenak FA. Planned home births: the need for additional contraindications. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 04; 216(4):401.e1-401.e8. PMID: 28153656.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Ethical dimensions of the fetus as a patient. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2017 Aug; 43:2-9. PMID: 28190695.
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    30. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Ethical issues in cesarean delivery. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2017 Aug; 43:68-75. PMID: 28202330.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Thomas TA, McCullough LB. Focus More on Causes and Less on Symptoms of Moral Distress. J Clin Ethics. 2017; 28(1):30-32. PMID: 28436925.
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    32. Blumenthal-Barby JS, Loftis L, Cummings CL, Meadow W, Lemmon M, Ubel PA, McCullough L, Rao E, Lantos JD. Should Neonatologists Give Opinions Withdrawing Life-sustaining Treatment? Pediatrics. 2016 12; 138(6). PMID: 27940720.
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    33. de la Garza S, Phuoc V, Throneberry S, Blumenthal-Barby J, McCullough L, Coverdale J. Teaching Medical Ethics in Graduate and Undergraduate Medical Education: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness. Acad Psychiatry. 2017 Aug; 41(4):520-525. PMID: 27644429.
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    34. Colindres JV, Childress KJ, Axelrad M, McCullough LB, Shao Y, Macias C, Loveless J, Gunn SK, Bercaw-Pratt J, Sutton R, Karaviti LP, Dietrich JE. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Puberty and Fertility in Girls with Turner Syndrome. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2016 Sep; 14(1):33-47. PMID: 28508615.
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    35. Gelber SE, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. Ethical Dimensions of Counseling about the Clinical Management of Gestational Diabetes. Am J Perinatol. 2016 11; 33(13):1262-1265. PMID: 27441566.
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    36. Green RC, Goddard KA, Jarvik GP, Amendola LM, Appelbaum PS, Berg JS, Bernhardt BA, Biesecker LG, Biswas S, Blout CL, Bowling KM, Brothers KB, Burke W, Caga-Anan CF, Chinnaiyan AM, Chung WK, Clayton EW, Cooper GM, East K, Evans JP, Fullerton SM, Garraway LA, Garrett JR, Gray SW, Henderson GE, Hindorff LA, Holm IA, Lewis MH, Hutter CM, Janne PA, Joffe S, Kaufman D, Knoppers BM, Koenig BA, Krantz ID, Manolio TA, McCullough L, McEwen J, McGuire A, Muzny D, Myers RM, Nickerson DA, Ou J, Parsons DW, Petersen GM, Plon SE, Rehm HL, Roberts JS, Robinson D, Salama JS, Scollon S, Sharp RR, Shirts B, Spinner NB, Tabor HK, Tarczy-Hornoch P, Veenstra DL, Wagle N, Weck K, Wilfond BS, Wilhelmsen K, Wolf SM, Wynn J, Yu JH. Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium: Accelerating Evidence-Based Practice of Genomic Medicine. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 07 07; 99(1):246. PMID: 27392080.
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    37. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Authors' reply re: Caesarean section should be available on request. BJOG. 2016 07; 123(8):1402-3. PMID: 27272301.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Thomas TA, Thammasitboon S, Balmer DF, Roy K, McCullough LB. A Qualitative Study Exploring Moral Distress Among Pediatric Resuscitation Team Clinicians: Challenges to Professional Integrity. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 07; 17(7):e303-8. PMID: 27182784.
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    39. Thomas TA, McCullough LB. Resuscitations That Never End: Originating From Unresolved Integrity-Related Moral Distress. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 06 01; 170(6):521-2. PMID: 27064676.
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    40. Grunebaum A, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. Authors' reply re: BJOG Debate 'Home birth is unsafe'. BJOG. 2016 06; 123(7):1232. PMID: 27206040.
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    41. Jones JW, McCullough LB. The ethics of dysfunctional professional relationships. J Vasc Surg. 2016 06; 63(6):1651-2. PMID: 27230247.
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    42. Grünebaum A, McCullough LB, Arabin B, Brent RL, Levene MI, Chervenak FA. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants. PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155721. PMID: 27187582.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Green RC, Goddard KAB, Jarvik GP, Amendola LM, Appelbaum PS, Berg JS, Bernhardt BA, Biesecker LG, Biswas S, Blout CL, Bowling KM, Brothers KB, Burke W, Caga-Anan CF, Chinnaiyan AM, Chung WK, Clayton EW, Cooper GM, East K, Evans JP, Fullerton SM, Garraway LA, Garrett JR, Gray SW, Henderson GE, Hindorff LA, Holm IA, Lewis MH, Hutter CM, Janne PA, Joffe S, Kaufman D, Knoppers BM, Koenig BA, Krantz ID, Manolio TA, McCullough L, McEwen J, McGuire A, Muzny D, Myers RM, Nickerson DA, Ou J, Parsons DW, Petersen GM, Plon SE, Rehm HL, Roberts JS, Robinson D, Salama JS, Scollon S, Sharp RR, Shirts B, Spinner NB, Tabor HK, Tarczy-Hornoch P, Veenstra DL, Wagle N, Weck K, Wilfond BS, Wilhelmsen K, Wolf SM, Wynn J, Yu JH. Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium: Accelerating Evidence-Based Practice of Genomic Medicine. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 06 02; 98(6):1051-1066. PMID: 27181682.
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    44. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Brent RL. Reply. J Pediatr. 2016 08; 175:244-5. PMID: 27160586.
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    45. Jones JW, McCullough LB. The ethics of insurance limiting institutional medical care: It's all about the money. J Vasc Surg. 2016 Apr; 63(4):1108-9. PMID: 27016860.
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    46. Coverdale JH, Roberts LW, Balon R, Beresin EV, Louie AK, Guerrero AP, Brenner AM, McCullough LB. Professional Integrity and the Role of Medical Students in Professional Self-Regulation. Acad Psychiatry. 2016 Jun; 40(3):525-9. PMID: 27020936.
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    47. Colindres JV, Axelrad M, McCullough L, Smith EO, Huang GO, Tu DD, Bercaw-Pratt JL, Cheni MJ, Mendiratta M, Gunn S, Sutton R, Macias C, Karaviti LP. Evidence-Based Management of Patients with 45,X/46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis and Male Sex Assignment: from Infancy to Adulthood. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2016 Mar; 13(3):585-601. PMID: 27116846.
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    48. Monni G, Illescas T, Iuculano A, Floris M, Mulas F, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA, Gelber SE. Single center experience in selective feticide in high-order multiple pregnancy: clinical and ethical issues. J Perinat Med. 2016 Mar; 44(2):161-6. PMID: 25720037.
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    49. McCullough LB, Chervenak FA, Coverdale JH. Managing Care of an Intrapartum Patient with Agitation and Psychosis: Ethical and Legal Implications. AMA J Ethics. 2016 Mar 01; 18(3):209-14. PMID: 27002991.
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    50. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Moral philosophy in perinatalology: A collaborative model for perinatal ethics. Semin Perinatol. 2016 06; 40(4):213-5. PMID: 26922859.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Fiduciary disparity clarity: Ethics of divided allegiances. J Vasc Surg. 2016 Feb; 63(2):546-7. PMID: 26804222.
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    52. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Healthcare justice and human rights in perinatal medicine. Semin Perinatol. 2016 06; 40(4):234-6. PMID: 26811097.
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    53. McCullough LB, Grünebaum A, Arabin B, Brent RL, Levene MI, Chervenak FA. Ethics and professional responsibility: Essential dimensions of planned home birth. Semin Perinatol. 2016 06; 40(4):222-6. PMID: 26804379.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Moaddab A, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA, Dildy GA, Shamshirsaz AA. Virginity testing in professional obstetric and gynaecological ethics. Lancet. 2016 Jul 02; 388(10039):98-100. PMID: 26725366.
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    55. McCullough LB. Physicians' Professionally Responsible Power: A Core Concept of Clinical Ethics. J Med Philos. 2016 Feb; 41(1):1-9. PMID: 26671961.
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    56. Thurman R, Chervenak FA, McCullough L, Halwani S, Farine D. Reply. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Apr; 214(4):550. PMID: 26694133.
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    57. Jones JW, McCullough LB. To treat or not to treat: On what should surgical therapy be based? J Vasc Surg. 2015 Dec; 62(6):1658-9. PMID: 26598122.
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    58. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Brent RL. Professional Responsibility and Early Childhood Vaccination. J Pediatr. 2016 Feb; 169:305-9. PMID: 26621045.
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    59. McCullough LB, Slashinski MJ, McGuire AL, Street RL, Eng CM, Gibbs RA, Parsons DW, Plon SE. Is Whole-Exome Sequencing an Ethically Disruptive Technology? Perspectives of Pediatric Oncologists and Parents of Pediatric Patients With Solid Tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016 Mar; 63(3):511-5. PMID: 26505993.
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    60. Brothers KB, Holm IA, Childerhose JE, Antommaria AH, Bernhardt BA, Clayton EW, Gelb BD, Joffe S, Lynch JA, McCormick JB, McCullough LB, Parsons DW, Sundaresan AS, Wolf WA, Yu JH, Wilfond BS. When Participants in Genomic Research Grow Up: Contact and Consent at the Age of Majority. J Pediatr. 2016 Jan; 168:226-31.e1. PMID: 26477867.
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    61. Gelber SE, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. Fetal tissue research: an ongoing story of professionally responsible success. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Dec; 213(6):819.e1-4. PMID: 26432465.
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    62. Menon S, McCullough LB, Beyth RJ, Ford ME, Espadas D, Braun UK. Use of a values inventory as a discussion aid about end-of-life care: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Palliat Support Care. 2016 08; 14(4):330-40. PMID: 26458331.
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    63. Grünebaum A, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. Reply. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Feb; 214(2):295. PMID: 26450409.
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    64. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Authors' reply re: re: re: caesarean section should be available on request. BJOG. 2015 Oct; 122(11):1569-70. PMID: 26406262.
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    65. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Authors' reply re: re: re: caesarean section should be available on request. BJOG. 2015 Oct; 122(11):1570-1. PMID: 26406264.
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    66. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Where does innovation adaptation end and experimentation begin? J Vasc Surg. 2015 Oct; 62(4):1074-5. PMID: 26410051.
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    67. McCullough LB, Moaddab A, Fox KA, Aagaard KM, Salmanian B, Raine SP, Shamshirsaz AA, Chervenak FA. Reply. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Jan; 214(1):137-8. PMID: 26408086.
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    68. McCullough LB, Brothers KB, Chung WK, Joffe S, Koenig BA, Wilfond B, Yu JH. Professionally Responsible Disclosure of Genomic Sequencing Results in Pediatric Practice. Pediatrics. 2015 Oct; 136(4):e974-82. PMID: 26371191.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Thurman RH, Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Halwani S, Farine D. Self-plagiarism: a misnomer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Jan; 214(1):91-3. PMID: 26363484.
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    70. Jones JW, McCullough LB. What is meant by high-risk informed consent? J Vasc Surg. 2015 Aug; 62(2):510-1. PMID: 26211384.
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    71. Grünebaum A, McCullough LB, Arabin B, Brent RL, Levene MI, Chervenak FA. Home birth is unsafe: FOR: The safety of planned homebirths: a clinical fiction. BJOG. 2015 Aug; 122(9):1235. PMID: 26212738.
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    72. Grünebaum A, McCullough LB, Brent RL, Arabin B, Levene MI, Chervenak FA. Justified skepticism about Apgar scoring in out-of-hospital birth settings. J Perinat Med. 2015 Jul; 43(4):455-60. PMID: 24756040.
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    73. McCullough LB, Coverdale JH, Chervenak FA. Is pharmacologic research on pregnant women with psychoses ethically permissible? J Perinat Med. 2015 Jul; 43(4):439-44. PMID: 25389981.
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    74. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Ethics in perinatal medicine: A global perspective. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015 Oct; 20(5):364-7. PMID: 26049210.
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    75. Chen MJ, Vu BM, Axelrad M, Dietrich JE, Gargollo P, Gunn S, Macias CG, McCullough LB, Roth DR, Sutton VR, Karaviti LP. Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: Management Considerations from Infancy to Adulthood. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2015 Jun; 12(4):373-87. PMID: 26182482.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Authors' reply re: Caesarean section should be available on request. BJOG. 2015 Jun; 122(7):1032. PMID: 26011462.
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    77. Carrese JA, Malek J, Watson K, Lehmann LS, Green MJ, McCullough LB, Geller G, Braddock CH, Doukas DJ. The essential role of medical ethics education in achieving professionalism: the Romanell Report. Acad Med. 2015 Jun; 90(6):744-52. PMID: 25881647.
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    78. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Is medical advertising always unethical, or does it just seem to be? J Vasc Surg. 2015 Jun; 61(6):1635-6. PMID: 26004333.
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    79. Moaddab A, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA, Fox KA, Aagaard KM, Salmanian B, Raine SP, Shamshirsaz AA. Health care justice and its implications for current policy of a mandatory waiting period for elective tubal sterilization. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jun; 212(6):736-9. PMID: 25935572.
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    80. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Is a gift authorship really a grift authorship? J Vasc Surg. 2015 Apr; 61(4):1092-3. PMID: 25814373.
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    81. McCullough LB. Medicine as a profession: a hypothetical imperative in clinical ethics. J Med Philos. 2015 Feb; 40(1):1-7. PMID: 25577784.
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    82. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Obligations and frustrations with high-risk patients: ethics of physicians' evaluations. J Vasc Surg. 2015 Feb; 61(2):533-4. PMID: 25619578.
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    83. Chervenak F, McCullough LB. FOR: Responding professionally to requests for non-indicated caesarean delivery. BJOG. 2015 Feb; 122(3):360. PMID: 25623572.
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    84. Allen NG, Blumenthal-Barby JS, McCullough LB. Placing and evaluating unproven interventions within a clinical ethical taxonomy of treatments for Ebola virus disease. Am J Bioeth. 2015; 15(4):50-3. PMID: 25856603.
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    85. Scollon S, Bergstrom K, McCullough LB, McGuire AL, Gutierrez S, Kerstein R, Parsons DW, Plon SE. Pediatric Cancer Genetics Research and an Evolving Preventive Ethics Approach for Return of Results after Death of the Subject. J Law Med Ethics. 2015; 43(3):529-37. PMID: 26479562.
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    86. McCullough LB. Professionally Responsible Clinical Ethical Judgments of Futility. Am J Bioeth. 2015; 15(8):54-6. PMID: 26225523.
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    87. Thomas TA, McCullough LB. A philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress. J Med Philos. 2015 Feb; 40(1):102-20. PMID: 25503608.
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    88. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Discovering overtreatment: second-opinion dilemma. J Vasc Surg. 2014 Dec; 60(6):1690-2. PMID: 25454110.
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    89. Grünebaum A, Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Sapra KJ. Reply: To PMID 24662716. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Feb; 212(2):254-5. PMID: 25448513.
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    90. Grünebaum A, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. Reply: To PMID 24662716. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Feb; 212(2):250-1. PMID: 25305407.
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    91. Grünebaum A, McCullough LB, Brent RL, Arabin B, Levene MI, Chervenak FA. Perinatal risks of planned home births in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Mar; 212(3):350.e1-6. PMID: 25446661.
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    92. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Is "your only hope" medical treatment choice really a choice? J Vasc Surg. 2014 Oct; 60(4):1083-4. PMID: 25260475.
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    93. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. The professional responsibility model and patient requests for nonindicated early delivery. Virtual Mentor. 2014 Oct 01; 16(10):793-6. PMID: 25310045.
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    94. Scollon S, Bergstrom K, Kerstein RA, Wang T, Hilsenbeck SG, Ramamurthy U, Gibbs RA, Eng CM, Chintagumpala MM, Berg SL, McCullough LB, McGuire AL, Plon SE, Parsons DW. Obtaining informed consent for clinical tumor and germline exome sequencing of newly diagnosed childhood cancer patients. Genome Med. 2014; 6(9):69. PMID: 25317207.
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    95. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Extending life or prolonging death: when is enough actually too much? J Vasc Surg. 2014 Aug; 60(2):521-2. PMID: 25064329.
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    96. Chervenak J, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. Surgery without consent or miscommunication? A new look at a landmark legal case. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 May; 212(5):586-90. PMID: 24995772.
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    97. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Ethics of administrative guidance: how much is too much? J Vasc Surg. 2014 Jun; 59(6):1737-8. PMID: 24836772.
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    98. McCann-Crosby B, Mansouri R, Dietrich JE, McCullough LB, Sutton VR, Austin EG, Schlomer B, Roth DR, Karaviti L, Gunn S, Hicks MJ, Macias CG. State of the art review in gonadal dysgenesis: challenges in diagnosis and management. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2014; 2014(1):4. PMID: 24731683.
      View in: PubMed
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    106. Coverdale JH, McCullough LB. Responsibly managing students' learning experiences in student-run clinics: a virtues-based ethical framework. Teach Learn Med. 2014; 26(3):312-5. PMID: 25010245.
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    110. Braun UK, Beyth RJ, Ford ME, Espadas D, McCullough LB. Decision-making styles of seriously ill male Veterans for end-of-life care: Autonomists, Altruists, Authorizers, Absolute Trusters, and Avoiders. Patient Educ Couns. 2014 Mar; 94(3):334-41. PMID: 24365071.
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    115. Jones JW, McCullough LB. When money and principles clash: the ethics of a surgical teaching service. J Vasc Surg. 2013 Oct; 58(4):1115-6. PMID: 24075110.
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    116. Escobar MA, Hartin CW, McCullough LB. Should general surgery residents be taught laparoscopic pyloromyotomies? An ethical perspective. J Surg Educ. 2014 Jan-Feb; 71(1):102-9. PMID: 24411432.
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    117. Blumenthal-Barby JS, McCullough LB, Krieger H, Coverdale J. Methods of influencing the decisions of psychiatric patients: an ethical analysis. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2013 Sep-Oct; 21(5):275-9. PMID: 24651560.
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    118. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Limits of confidentiality: to disclose or not to disclose. J Vasc Surg. 2013 Aug; 58(2):521-3. PMID: 23890445.
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    125. Jones JW, McCullough LB. The ethics of imposing healthy professional lifestyles on professionals. J Vasc Surg. 2013 Jun; 57(6):1693-4. PMID: 23719042.
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    126. McGuire AL, Joffe S, Koenig BA, Biesecker BB, McCullough LB, Blumenthal-Barby JS, Caulfield T, Terry SF, Green RC. Point-counterpoint. Ethics and genomic incidental findings. Science. 2013 May 31; 340(6136):1047-8. PMID: 23686340.
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    130. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Medicine versus religion in the surgical intensive care unit: who is in charge? J Vasc Surg. 2013 Apr; 57(4):1146-7. PMID: 23535044.
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    132. Suresh D, Crawford J, Axelrad ME, Gunn SK, McCullough L, Smith OB, Sutton VR, Roth D, Karaviti LP, Dietrich JE. Assessing sex assignment concordance with genotype and phenotype. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2013 Mar 14; 2013(1):7. PMID: 23496938.
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    136. McCullough LB, Chervenak FA, Coverdale JH. An ethical framework for conducting research on pregnant, opioid-dependent women. Addiction. 2013 Feb; 108(2):248-9. PMID: 23331876.
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    137. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Ethical challenges in the management of multiple pregnancies: the professional responsibility model of perinatal ethics. J Perinat Med. 2013 Jan; 41(1):61-4. PMID: 23314513.
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    138. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Grünebaum A, Arabin B, Levene MI, Brent RL. Planned home birth in the United States and professionalism: a critical assessment. J Clin Ethics. 2013; 24(3):184-91. PMID: 24282845.
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    140. McCullough LB. Critically appraising prenatal genetic diagnosis to prevent disorders of sexual development: an opportunity missed. Am J Bioeth. 2013; 13(10):1-3. PMID: 24024795.
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    143. Dudenhausen JW, Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Letter to the editor regarding: Brown SD, Ecker JL, Ward JRM, et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Feb; 208(2):159. PMID: 23149212.
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    147. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Medical expert witness litmus. J Vasc Surg. 2012 Aug; 56(2):528-9. PMID: 22840903.
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    148. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Ethical dimensions of fetal neurology. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Oct; 17(5):252-5. PMID: 22695704.
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    151. Douglas G, Axelrad ME, Brandt ML, Crabtree E, Dietrich JE, French S, Gunn S, Karaviti L, Lopez ME, Macias CG, McCullough LB, Suresh D, Austin E, Reid Sutton V. Guidelines for evaluating and managing children born with disorders of sexual development. Pediatr Ann. 2012 Apr; 41(4):e1-7. PMID: 22494213.
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    152. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Discontent with operative consent. J Vasc Surg. 2012 Apr; 55(4):1185-6. PMID: 22464462.
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    157. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Ethics of treating postoperative pain. J Vasc Surg. 2012 Feb; 55(2):583-4. PMID: 22264808.
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    160. Brett AS, McCullough LB. Addressing requests by patients for nonbeneficial interventions. JAMA. 2012 Jan 11; 307(2):149-50. PMID: 22235082.
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    170. Placencia FX, McCullough LB. The history of ethical decision making in neonatal intensive care. J Intensive Care Med. 2011 Nov-Dec; 26(6):368-84. PMID: 21606057.
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    173. Braun UK, McCullough LB. Preventing life-sustaining treatment by default. Ann Fam Med. 2011 May-Jun; 9(3):250-6. PMID: 21555753.
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    182. Douglas G, Axelrad ME, Brandt ML, Crabtree E, Dietrich JE, French S, Gunn S, Karaviti L, Lopez ME, Macias CG, McCullough LB, Suresh D, Sutton VR. Consensus in Guidelines for Evaluation of DSD by the Texas Children's Hospital Multidisciplinary Gender Medicine Team. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2010; 2010:919707. PMID: 20981291.
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    183. Sharp RR, McGowan ML, Verma JA, Landy DC, McAdoo S, Carson SA, Simpson JL, McCullough LB. Moral attitudes and beliefs among couples pursuing PGD for sex selection. Reprod Biomed Online. 2010 Dec; 21(7):838-47. PMID: 21051290.
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    186. Swindell JS, Coverdale JH, Crisp-Han H, McCullough LB. Focus on patient management: responsibly managing psychiatric inpatient refusal of medical or surgical diagnostic work-up. Psychiatr Serv. 2010 Sep; 61(9):868-70. PMID: 20810583.
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    188. Jones JW, McCullough LB. The ethical hierarchy of do not resuscitate orders: never say never. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Nov; 52(5):1384-6. PMID: 20732777.
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    189. Jones JW, McCullough LB. I know about Jack and you're no Jack Kevorkian. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Aug; 52(2):489-90. PMID: 20670780.
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    190. Chervenak JL, Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. A new approach to professional liability reform: placing obligations of stakeholders ahead of their interests. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Sep; 203(3):203.e1-7. PMID: 20451889.
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    191. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Ethical considerations in first-trimester Down syndrome risk assessment. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Apr; 22(2):135-8. PMID: 20125014.
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    192. McCullough LB. Cosmetic genetics and virtue-based restraints on autonomy. Am J Bioeth. 2010 Apr; 10(4):71-2. PMID: 20379930.
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    193. Jones JW, McCullough LB. To sleep or not to sleep, that is the question. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Apr; 51(4):1033-4. PMID: 20347701.
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    195. Cunningham FG, Bangdiwala SI, Brown SS, Dean TM, Frederiksen M, Rowland Hogue CJ, King T, Spencer Lukacz E, McCullough LB, Nicholson W, Petit NF, Probstfield JL, Viguera AC, Wong CA, Zimmet SC. NIH consensus development conference draft statement on vaginal birth after cesarean: new insights. NIH Consens State Sci Statements. 2010 Mar 10; 27(3):1-42. PMID: 20228855.
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    196. Doukas DJ, McCullough LB, Wear S. Reforming medical education in ethics and humanities by finding common ground with Abraham Flexner. Acad Med. 2010 Feb; 85(2):318-23. PMID: 20107362.
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    197. Skupski DW, McCullough LB, Levene M, Chervenak FA. Improving obstetric estimation of outcomes of extremely premature neonates: an evolving challenge. J Perinat Med. 2010; 38(1):19-22. PMID: 19958213.
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    198. McCullough LB. Taking seriously the "what then?" question: an ethical framework for the responsible management of medical disasters. J Clin Ethics. 2010; 21(4):321-7. PMID: 21313866.
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    199. McCullough LB. La frontera: responsibly managing borders and boundaries in clinical ethics. J Med Philos. 2010 Feb; 35(1):1-6. PMID: 20026528.
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    201. Braun UK, Ford ME, Beyth RJ, McCullough LB. The physician's professional role in end-of-life decision-making: voices of racially and ethnically diverse physicians. Patient Educ Couns. 2010 Jul; 80(1):3-9. PMID: 19948388.
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    202. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Women and children first-or last? The New York Declaration. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Oct; 201(4):335. PMID: 19788962.
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    203. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Walter RJ. Can physicians' contractual obligations limit their professional obligations? Virtual Mentor. 2009 Oct 01; 11(10):755-60. PMID: 23206938.
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    204. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. An ethically justified practical approach to offering, recommending, performing, and referring for induced abortion and feticide. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Dec; 201(6):560.e1-6. PMID: 19762005.
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    206. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Where to declare poor nursing home care. J Vasc Surg. 2009 Oct; 50(4):934-5. PMID: 19632805.
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    207. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Professional integrity, respect for autonomy, and the self-regulation of reproductive endocrinology. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Jul; 201(1):3-4. PMID: 19576368.
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    208. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Surgical infomercials: the ethical price of stardom. J Vasc Surg. 2009 Jul; 50(1):214-5. PMID: 19563973.
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    209. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Cefalo R. An ethical justification and policy for making commitments during computerized residency application processes: The US matching program as a laboratory for needed reform. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2011 Aug; 16(3):427-33. PMID: 19496016.
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    211. Jones JW, McCullough LB. To transfer or not to transfer, that is the question. J Vasc Surg. 2009 May; 49(5):1337-8. PMID: 19394558.
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    212. Landy DC, Coverdale JH, McCullough LB, Sharp RR. Prepublication review of medical ethics research: cause for concern. Acad Med. 2009 Apr; 84(4):495-7. PMID: 19318788.
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    213. Jones JW, McCullough LB. How do we guarantee trainee professional purity? J Vasc Surg. 2009 Mar; 49(3):790-1. PMID: 19268782.
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    214. Naik AD, Dyer CB, Kunik ME, McCullough LB. Response to commentaries on "Patient autonomy for the management of chronic conditions: a two-component re-conceptualization". Am J Bioeth. 2009 Feb; 9(2):W3-5. PMID: 19180379.
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    215. Naik AD, Dyer CB, Kunik ME, McCullough LB. Patient autonomy for the management of chronic conditions: a two-component re-conceptualization. Am J Bioeth. 2009 Feb; 9(2):23-30. PMID: 19180389.
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    216. Axelrad ME, Berg JS, Coker LA, Dietrich J, Adcock L, French SL, Gunn S, Ligon BL, McCullough LB, Sutton VR, Karaviti LP. The gender medicine team: "it takes a village". Adv Pediatr. 2009; 56:145-64. PMID: 19968947.
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    217. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Arabin B. The Groningen Protocol: is it necessary? Is it scientific? Is it ethical? J Perinat Med. 2009; 37(3):199-205. PMID: 19127990.
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    218. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Preventive ethics and subsequent care of patients self-administering ovarian stimulation for the management of infertility. J Clin Ethics. 2009; 20(3):239-40. PMID: 19845195.
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    219. Coverdale JH, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. The ethics of randomized placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants with pregnant women: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Dec; 112(6):1361-8. PMID: 19037048.
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    220. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Just how far goes DNR? J Vasc Surg. 2008 Dec; 48(6):1630-2. PMID: 19118748.
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    221. Naik AD, Teal CR, Pavlik VN, Dyer CB, McCullough LB. Conceptual challenges and practical approaches to screening capacity for self-care and protection in vulnerable older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 Nov; 56 Suppl 2:S266-70. PMID: 19016970.
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    222. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Surgical education: Eschewing the doing. J Vasc Surg. 2008 Oct; 48(4):1060-1. PMID: 18992426.
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    223. Braun UK, McCullough LB, Beyth RJ, Wray NP, Kunik ME, Morgan RO. Racial and ethnic differences in the treatment of seriously ill patients: a comparison of African-American, Caucasian and Hispanic veterans. J Natl Med Assoc. 2008 Sep; 100(9):1041-51. PMID: 18807433.
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    224. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. The ethics of direct and indirect referral for termination of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Sep; 199(3):232.e1-3. PMID: 18667194.
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    225. Whitney SN, McCullough LB, Frugé E, McGuire AL, Volk RJ. Beyond breaking bad news: the roles of hope and hopefulness. Cancer. 2008 Jul 15; 113(2):442-5. PMID: 18484591.
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    226. McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. A critical analysis of the concept and discourse of 'unborn child'. Am J Bioeth. 2008 Jul; 8(7):34-9. PMID: 18759183.
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    227. Whitney SN, Holmes-Rovner M, Brody H, Schneider C, McCullough LB, Volk RJ, McGuire AL. Beyond shared decision making: an expanded typology of medical decisions. Med Decis Making. 2008 Sep-Oct; 28(5):699-705. PMID: 18556639.
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    228. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Resolution of retribution. J Vasc Surg. 2008 Jul; 48(1):244-5. PMID: 18486424.
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    229. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Therapeutic boundary intersection disaffection. J Vasc Surg. 2008 May; 47(5):1116-8. PMID: 18358672.
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    230. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Sharma G, Davis J, Gross S. Enhancing patient autonomy with risk assessment and invasive diagnosis: an ethical solution to a clinical challenge. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jul; 199(1):19.e1-4. PMID: 18355783.
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    231. McCullough LB. Toward ethical best practices in community consultation for research conducted with waiver of informed consent. Crit Care Med. 2008 Mar; 36(3):993-4. PMID: 18431295.
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    232. McCullough LB. Rethinking the conceptual and empirical foundations of clinical ethics. J Med Philos. 2008 Feb; 33(1):1-5. PMID: 18420547.
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    233. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Operative simulcasts: patient's donations to surgeon's education. J Vasc Surg. 2008 Feb; 47(2):476-7. PMID: 18241773.
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    234. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. How physicians and scientists can respond responsibly and effectively to religiously based opposition to human embryonic stem cell research. Fertil Steril. 2008 Dec; 90(6):2056-9. PMID: 18178193.
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    235. Braun UK, Beyth RJ, Ford ME, McCullough LB. Voices of African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic surrogates on the burdens of end-of-life decision making. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Mar; 23(3):267-74. PMID: 18172738.
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    236. Jones JW, McCullough LB. The shifting sands of senility: canceled consent. J Vasc Surg. 2008 Jan; 47(1):237-8. PMID: 18178480.
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    237. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Professional responsibility and individual conscience: protecting the informed consent process from impermissible bias. J Clin Ethics. 2008; 19(1):24-5. PMID: 18552049.
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    238. Fox NS, Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Ethical considerations in umbilical cord blood banking. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan; 111(1):178-82. PMID: 18165407.
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    239. McGuire AL, Hamilton JA, Lunstroth R, McCullough LB, Goldman A. DNA data sharing: research participants' perspectives. Genet Med. 2008 Jan; 10(1):46-53. PMID: 18197056.
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    240. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Medical tort falls short in court. J Vasc Surg. 2007 Dec; 46(6):1303-5. PMID: 18155010.
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    241. McCullough LB, McGuire AL, Whitney SN. Consent: informed, simple, implied and presumed. Am J Bioeth. 2007 Dec; 7(12):49-50; discussion W3-4. PMID: 18098025.
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    242. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. The identification, management, and prevention of conflict with faculty and fellows: A practical ethical guide for department chairs and division chiefs. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Dec; 197(6):572.e1-5. PMID: 18060939.
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    243. Jones JW, McCullough LB. What to do when a patient's international medical care goes south. J Vasc Surg. 2007 Nov; 46(5):1077-9. PMID: 17980296.
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    244. Jones JW, McCullough LB. The extent of informed consent. J Vasc Surg. 2007 Oct; 46(4):821-2. PMID: 17903663.
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    245. Baker RB, McCullough LB. The relationship between moral philosophy and medical ethics reconsidered. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2007 Sep; 17(3):271-6. PMID: 18210985.
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    246. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Intentional over-treatment: the unmentionable conflict-of-interest. J Vasc Surg. 2007 Sep; 46(3):605-7. PMID: 17826255.
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    247. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Ethics of maternal-fetal surgery. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007 Dec; 12(6):426-31. PMID: 17681891.
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    248. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Institutional futility: factual or phony? J Vasc Surg. 2007 Jul; 46(1):169-70. PMID: 17606138.
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    249. Whitney SN, McCullough LB. Physicians' silent decisions: because patient autonomy does not always come first. Am J Bioeth. 2007 Jul; 7(7):33-8. PMID: 17654382.
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    250. Whitney SN, McCullough LB. Responses to open peer commentaries on "Physicians' silent decisions: because patient autonomy doesn't always come first". Am J Bioeth. 2007 Jul; 7(7):W1-3. PMID: 17654368.
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    251. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Are ethics practical when externals impact your clinical judgment? J Vasc Surg. 2007 Jun; 45(6):1282-4. PMID: 17543698.
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    252. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Going public with amazing cases: fiat or fiasco? J Vasc Surg. 2007 May; 45(5):1084-5. PMID: 17466808.
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    253. McCullough LB. The abstract nature of anatomic construction and its advantages: scientific medicine and human dignity. Am J Bioeth. 2007 Apr; 7(4):44-5; discussion W1-3. PMID: 17454997.
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    254. Berg JS, French SL, McCullough LB, Kleppe S, Sutton VR, Gunn SK, Karaviti LP. Ethical and legal implications of genetic testing in androgen insensitivity syndrome. J Pediatr. 2007 Apr; 150(4):434-8. PMID: 17382127.
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    255. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Fiduciary economization: your wealth or your health. J Vasc Surg. 2007 Apr; 45(4):858-60. PMID: 17398402.
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    256. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Ethics of over-scheduling: when enough becomes too much. J Vasc Surg. 2007 Mar; 45(3):635-6. PMID: 17321354.
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    257. Sharma G, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. Ethical considerations of early (first vs. second trimester) risk assessment disclosure for trisomy 21 and patient choice in screening versus diagnostic testing. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2007 Feb 15; 145C(1):99-104. PMID: 17299736.
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    258. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Ethics of unprofessional behavior that disrupts: crossing the line. J Vasc Surg. 2007 Feb; 45(2):433-5. PMID: 17264032.
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    259. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Caseload outcome credentialing: taking from the have-nots. J Vasc Surg. 2007 Jan; 45(1):214-6. PMID: 17210413.
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    260. Robertson CS, McCullough LB, Brody B. Finding family for prospective consent in emergency research. Clin Trials. 2007; 4(6):631-7. PMID: 18042572.
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    261. McCullough LB, Coverdale JH, Chervenak FA. Constructing a systematic review for argument-based clinical ethics literature: the example of concealed medications. J Med Philos. 2007 Jan-Feb; 32(1):65-76. PMID: 17365446.
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    262. Fox NS, Stevens C, Ciubotariu R, Rubinstein P, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. Umbilical cord blood collection: do patients really understand? J Perinat Med. 2007; 35(4):314-21. PMID: 17511596.
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    263. Bastron RD, McCullough LB. What goes around, comes around: John Gregory, MD, and the profession of medicine. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2007 Jan; 20(1):18-21. PMID: 17256037.
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    264. McCullough LB. Towards a professional ethics model of clinical ethics. J Med Philos. 2007 Jan-Feb; 32(1):1-6. PMID: 17365442.
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    265. Kalish RB, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. Is non-directive counseling for patient choice cesarean delivery ethically justified? J Perinat Med. 2007; 35(6):478-80. PMID: 18052833.
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    266. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Corporate funding of professional foundations: Just another black sheep? J Vasc Surg. 2006 Nov; 44(5):1126-8. PMID: 17098556.
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    267. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Ethics and professionalism: do we need yet another surgeons' charter? J Vasc Surg. 2006 Oct; 44(4):903-6. PMID: 17012018.
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    268. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. My brother's keeper: uncompensated care for illegal immigrants. J Vasc Surg. 2006 Sep; 44(3):679-82. PMID: 16950455.
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    269. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Arabin B. Why the Groningen Protocol should be rejected. Hastings Cent Rep. 2006 Sep-Oct; 36(5):30-3. PMID: 17091699.
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    270. Contant C, McCullough LB, Mangus L, Robertson C, Valadka A, Brody B. Community consultation in emergency research. Crit Care Med. 2006 Aug; 34(8):2049-52. PMID: 16763512.
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    271. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Painted into a corner: unexpected complications in treating a Jehovah's Witness. J Vasc Surg. 2006 Aug; 44(2):425-8. PMID: 16814977.
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    272. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. When the data won't get you there: the ethics of scientific error, and worse. J Vasc Surg. 2006 Jun; 43(6):1308-10. PMID: 16765262.
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    273. Maa A, McCullough LB. Medical education in the public versus the private setting: a qualitative study of medical students' attitudes. Med Teach. 2006 Jun; 28(4):351-5. PMID: 16807175.
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    274. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Quality credentialing: boon or boondoggle? J Vasc Surg. 2006 May; 43(5):1073-5. PMID: 16678711.
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    275. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Baril TE. Ethics, a neglected dimension of power relationships of physician leaders. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Sep; 195(3):651-6. PMID: 16635471.
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    276. McCullough LB, Coverdale JH, Chervenak FA. Preventive ethics for including women of childbearing potential in clinical trials. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 May; 194(5):1221-7. PMID: 16647904.
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    277. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Chasen ST. Further evidence for first-trimester risk assessment as an autonomy-enhancing strategy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr; 27(4):355. PMID: 16565988.
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    278. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Other people's money: ethics, finances, and bad outcomes. J Vasc Surg. 2006 Apr; 43(4):863-5. PMID: 16616254.
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    279. McCullough LB. John Gregory's medical ethics and the reform of medical practice in eighteenth-century Edinburgh. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2006 Mar; 36(1):86-92. PMID: 17146956.
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    280. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. From premiums to payouts: who's behind the malpractice crisis, anyway? J Vasc Surg. 2006 Mar; 43(3):635-8. PMID: 16520188.
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    281. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. A helping hand bitten: an ethical response to medical malpractice suits. J Vasc Surg. 2006 Feb; 43(2):422-5. PMID: 16476628.
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    282. McCullough LB. Getting back to the fundamentals of clinical ethics. J Med Philos. 2006 Feb; 31(1):1-6. PMID: 16464766.
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    283. Coverdale J, McCullough LB, Molinari V, Workman R. Ethically justified clinical strategies for promoting geriatric assent. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 Feb; 21(2):151-7. PMID: 16416459.
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    284. Escobar MA, McCullough LB. Responsibly managing ethical challenges of residency training: a guide for surgery residents, educators, and residency program leaders. J Am Coll Surg. 2006 Mar; 202(3):531-5. PMID: 16500258.
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    285. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Consultation or corruption? The ethics of signing on to the medical-industrial complex. J Vasc Surg. 2006 Jan; 43(1):192-5. PMID: 16414412.
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    286. Whitney SN, Ethier AM, Frugé E, Berg S, McCullough LB, Hockenberry M. Decision making in pediatric oncology: who should take the lead? The decisional priority in pediatric oncology model. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jan 01; 24(1):160-5. PMID: 16382126.
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    287. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Whodunit? Ghost surgery and ethical billing. J Vasc Surg. 2005 Dec; 42(6):1239-41. PMID: 16376225.
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    288. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. The ethics of operating on a family member. J Vasc Surg. 2005 Nov; 42(5):1033-5. PMID: 16275469.
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    289. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Ethics and growing legal crisis in medicine. Croat Med J. 2005 Oct; 46(5):724-7. PMID: 16158463.
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    290. McCullough LB. Neonatal ethics at the limits of viability. Pediatrics. 2005 Oct; 116(4):1019-21. PMID: 16199718.
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    291. Brody BA, McCullough LB, Sharp RR. Consensus and controversy in clinical research ethics. JAMA. 2005 Sep 21; 294(11):1411-4. PMID: 16174704.
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    292. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Turf wars: the ethics of professional territorialism. J Vasc Surg. 2005 Sep; 42(3):587-9. PMID: 16171615.
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    293. McCullough LB, Coverdale JH, Chervenak FA. A comprehensive ethical framework for responsibly designing and conducting pharmacologic research that involves pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Sep; 193(3 Pt 2):901-7. PMID: 16157085.
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    294. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Show me the money: the ethics of physicians' income. J Vasc Surg. 2005 Aug; 42(2):377-9. PMID: 16102645.
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    295. Nicolaides KH, Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Avgidou K, Papageorghiou A. Evidence-based obstetric ethics and informed decision-making by pregnant women about invasive diagnosis after first-trimester assessment of risk for trisomy 21. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Aug; 193(2):322-6. PMID: 16098850.
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    296. McCullough LB, Richman BW, Jones JW. Withdrawal of life-sustaining low-burden care. J Vasc Surg. 2005 Jul; 42(1):176-7. PMID: 16012471.
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    297. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Physician-assisted suicide: has it come of age? Surgery. 2005 Jul; 138(1):105-8. PMID: 16003325.
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    298. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Responsibly managing the medical school--teaching hospital power relationship. Acad Med. 2005 Jul; 80(7):690-3. PMID: 15980088.
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    299. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Implementation of first-trimester risk assessment for trisomy 21: ethical considerations. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jun; 192(6):1777-81. PMID: 15970806.
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    300. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. The ethics of odd ideas, good science, and academic freedom. J Vasc Surg. 2005 Jun; 41(6):1074-6. PMID: 15944616.
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    301. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Who should protect the public against bad doctors? J Vasc Surg. 2005 May; 41(5):907-10. PMID: 15886682.
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    302. McGuire AL, McCullough LB, Weller SC, Whitney SN. Missed expectations? Physicians' views of patients' participation in medical decision-making. Med Care. 2005 May; 43(5):466-70. PMID: 15838411.
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    303. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. The diagnosis and management of progressive dysfunction of health care organizations. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Apr; 105(4):882-7. PMID: 15802422.
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    304. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Crigger NA, Richman BW. The ethics of administrative credentialing. J Vasc Surg. 2005 Apr; 41(4):729-31. PMID: 15874943.
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    305. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Truth-telling about terminal diseases. Surgery. 2005 Mar; 137(3):380-2. PMID: 15746796.
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    306. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Damned if you do and damned if you don't: medical ethics and a second career. J Vasc Surg. 2005 Mar; 41(3):556-8. PMID: 15838497.
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    307. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Ethics of the new economic credentialing: conflicted leadership roles. J Vasc Surg. 2005 Feb; 41(2):366-8. PMID: 15768023.
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    308. McCullough LB. The critical turn in clinical ethics and its continuous enhancement. J Med Philos. 2005 Feb; 30(1):1-8. PMID: 15814364.
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    309. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. An ethical critique of boutique fetal imaging:a case for the medicalization of fetal imaging. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jan; 192(1):31-3. PMID: 15671998.
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    310. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Ethical nuances of combining romance with medical practice. J Vasc Surg. 2005 Jan; 41(1):174-5. PMID: 15696065.
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    311. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Standard of care: what does it really mean? J Vasc Surg. 2004 Dec; 40(6):1255-7. PMID: 15622386.
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    312. Boisaubin EV, McCullough LB. Prescribing viagra in an ethically responsible fashion. J Med Philos. 2004 Dec; 29(6):739-49. PMID: 15590519.
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    313. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. An ethical framework for identifying, preventing, and managing conflicts confronting leaders of academic health centers. Acad Med. 2004 Nov; 79(11):1056-61. PMID: 15504771.
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    314. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Ethics of refusal to treat patients as a social statement. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Nov; 40(5):1057-9. PMID: 15557930.
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    315. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. The military physician's ethical response to evidence of torture. Surgery. 2004 Nov; 136(5):1090-3. PMID: 15523407.
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    316. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Family-surgeon disagreements over interventions. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Oct; 40(4):831-2. PMID: 15472618.
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    317. McCullough LB, Coverdale JH, Chervenak FA. Argument-based medical ethics: a formal tool for critically appraising the normative medical ethics literature. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Oct; 191(4):1097-102. PMID: 15507927.
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    318. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Stem cell research: obligations when religious values conflict with professional values. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Sep; 40(3):589-91. PMID: 15337898.
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    319. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. The ethics of personal advertising in surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Aug; 40(2):397-9. PMID: 15297843.
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    320. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. The ethics of innovative surgical approaches for well-established procedures. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Jul; 40(1):199-201. PMID: 15218487.
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    321. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Ethics of serving as a plaintiff's expert medical witness. Surgery. 2004 Jul; 136(1):100-2. PMID: 15232548.
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    322. Sharma G, Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Minkoff H. Ethical considerations in elective cesarean delivery. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Jun; 47(2):404-8. PMID: 15166864.
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    323. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Ethics of professional courtesy. J Vasc Surg. 2004 May; 39(5):1140-1. PMID: 15111876.
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    324. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Neglected ethical dimensions of the professional liability crisis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 May; 190(5):1198-200. PMID: 15167818.
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    325. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Ethics of surgical innovation to treat rare diseases. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Apr; 39(4):918-9. PMID: 15071468.
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    326. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. An impaired surgeon, a conflict of interest, and supervisory responsibilities. Surgery. 2004 Apr; 135(4):449-51. PMID: 15041970.
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    327. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Ethics and commercial insurance. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Mar; 39(3):692-3. PMID: 14981474.
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    328. Chasen ST, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. Is nuchal translucency screening associated with different rates of invasive testing in an older obstetric population? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Mar; 190(3):769-74. PMID: 15042012.
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    329. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Crigger NA, Richman BW. Ethics of introducing new operating room technology. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Feb; 39(2):482-3. PMID: 14743159.
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    330. McCullough LB. The nature and limits of the physician's professional responsibilities: surgical ethics, matters of conscience, and managed care. J Med Philos. 2004 Feb; 29(1):3-9. PMID: 15449810.
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    331. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Knapp RC, Caputo TA, Barber HR. A clinically comprehensive ethical framework for offering and recommending cancer treatment before and during pregnancy. Cancer. 2004 Jan 15; 100(2):215-22. PMID: 14716752.
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    332. Whitney SN, McGuire AL, McCullough LB. A typology of shared decision making, informed consent, and simple consent. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Jan 06; 140(1):54-9. PMID: 14706973.
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    333. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Clinical disagreements between residents and faculty surgeons. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Jan; 39(1):270-2. PMID: 14718854.
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    334. Coverdale JH, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. Assisted and surrogate decision making for pregnant patients who have schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2004; 30(3):659-64. PMID: 15631258.
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    335. McCullough LB. Taking the history of medical ethics seriously in teaching medical professionalism. Am J Bioeth. 2004; 4(2):13-4. PMID: 15186671.
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    336. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Training on newly deceased patients. Surgery. 2004 Jan; 135(1):108-9. PMID: 14694308.
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    337. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Ethics of research and the pregnant patient. Curr Womens Health Rep. 2003 Dec; 3(6):505-9. PMID: 14613673.
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    338. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Limits of confidentiality: Disclosure of HIV seropositivity. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Dec; 38(6):1443-4. PMID: 14681659.
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    339. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. The fetus as a patient: an essential concept for the ethics of perinatal medicine. Am J Perinatol. 2003 Nov; 20(8):399-404. PMID: 14703587.
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    340. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Management of disagreements between attending and consulting physicians. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Nov; 38(5):1137-8. PMID: 14603230.
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    341. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. What to tell patients harmed by other physicians. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Oct; 38(4):866-7. PMID: 14560248.
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    342. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. The surgeon's obligations to the noncompliant patient. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Sep; 38(3):626-7. PMID: 12947291.
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    343. Agre P, Campbell FA, Goldman BD, Boccia ML, Kass N, McCullough LB, Merz JF, Miller SM, Mintz J, Rapkin B, Sugarman J, Sorenson J, Wirshing D. Improving informed consent: the medium is not the message. IRB. 2003 Sep-Oct; Suppl 25(5):S11-S19. PMID: 14870732.
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    344. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Ethics of institutional marketing: role of physicians. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Aug; 38(2):409-10. PMID: 12891132.
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    345. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Skupski D, Chasen ST. Ethical issues in the management of pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2003 Jul; 58(7):473-83. PMID: 12832939.
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    346. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. The Cornell University experience. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2003 Jul-Aug; 18(4):217-22. PMID: 12835578.
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    347. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Ethics of operative scheduling: fiduciary patient responsibilities and more. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Jul; 38(1):204-5. PMID: 12844116.
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    348. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Withdrawal of operative consent. Surgery. 2003 Jun; 133(6):692-3. PMID: 12796739.
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    349. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. The ethics of clinical pathways and cost control. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Jun; 37(6):1341-2. PMID: 12764289.
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    350. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Birnbach DJ. Ethics: an essential dimension of clinical obstetric anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2003 May; 96(5):1480-5. PMID: 12707153.
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    351. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Advanced age, dementia, and an abdominal aneurysm: intervene? J Vasc Surg. 2003 May; 37(5):1132-3. PMID: 12756367.
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    352. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Physicians and hospital managers as cofiduciaries of patients: rhetoric or reality? J Healthc Manag. 2003 May-Jun; 48(3):172-9; discussion 180. PMID: 12789705.
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    353. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Do unto others: justice in surgical education. Surgery. 2003 Apr; 133(4):443-4. PMID: 12717364.
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    354. Jones JW, Richman BW, McCullough LB. HIV-infected surgeon: professional responsibility and self interest. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Apr; 37(4):914-5. PMID: 12664004.
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    355. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Patient responsibilities, family responsibilities. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Mar; 37(3):698-9. PMID: 12618717.
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    356. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. The ethics of sham surgery in research. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Feb; 37(2):482-3. PMID: 12563228.
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    357. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. Ethics of patenting surgical procedures. J Vasc Surg. 2003 Jan; 37(1):235-6. PMID: 12514611.
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    358. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. An ethical framework for fetal research. Med Ethics (Burlingt Mass). 2003; 10(1):1-2. PMID: 16175721.
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    359. Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW. A surgeon's obligations to a Jehovah's Witness child. Surgery. 2003 Jan; 133(1):110-1. PMID: 12563245.
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    360. McCullough LB, Richman BW, Jones JW. Nonmonetary conflicts of interest. J Vasc Surg. 2002 Dec; 36(6):1309-10. PMID: 12469068.
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    361. Jones JW, Richman BW, McCullough LB. Professional self-regulation: eyewitness to incompetent surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2002 Nov; 36(5):1092-3. PMID: 12422126.
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    362. Jones JW, Richman BW, McCullough LB. The public's right to know? Surgical treatment of public figures. J Vasc Surg. 2002 Oct; 36(4):865-6. PMID: 12368754.
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    363. McCullough LB, Coverdale JH, Chervenak FA. Ethical challenges of decision making with pregnant patients who have schizophrenia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Sep; 187(3):696-702. PMID: 12237650.
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    364. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Consent for residents to perform surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2002 Sep; 36(3):655-6. PMID: 12218999.
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    365. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Disclosure of intraoperative events. Surgery. 2002 Sep; 132(3):531-2. PMID: 12324774.
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    366. McCullough LB. Philosophical challenges in teaching bioethics: the importance of professional medical ethics and its history for bioethics. J Med Philos. 2002 Aug; 27(4):395-402. PMID: 12221500.
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    367. Jones JW, McCullough LB. When does conventional surgical therapy become research? J Vasc Surg. 2002 Aug; 36(2):423-4. PMID: 12170231.
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    368. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Complying with advance directives in the operating room. J Vasc Surg. 2002 Jul; 36(1):199-200. PMID: 12096283.
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    369. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. A comprehensive ethical framework for fetal research and its application to fetal surgery for spina bifida. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Jul; 187(1):10-4. PMID: 12114882.
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    370. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Futility and surgical intervention. J Vasc Surg. 2002 Jun; 35(6):1305. PMID: 12042751.
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    371. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Arsenic and old lace: end-of-life care in the postoperative period. Surgery. 2002 May; 131(5):583-4. PMID: 12019415.
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    372. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Refusal of life-saving treatment in the aged. J Vasc Surg. 2002 May; 35(5):1067. PMID: 12021729.
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    373. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Surgeon-industry relationships: ethically responsible management of conflicts of interest. J Vasc Surg. 2002 Apr; 35(4):825-6. PMID: 11932691.
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    374. Jones JW, McCullough LB. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in death row inmate. J Vasc Surg. 2002 Mar; 35(3):621-2. PMID: 11877720.
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    375. Jones JW, McCullough LB. A surgeon's obligations when performing new procedures. J Vasc Surg. 2002 Feb; 35(2):409-10. PMID: 11854750.
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    376. Mccullough LB. Trust, moral responsibility, the self, and well-ordered societies: the importance of basic philosophical concepts for clinical ethics. J Med Philos. 2002 Feb; 27(1):3-9. PMID: 11961683.
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    377. Grinnell F, Bishop JP, McCullough LB. Bioethical pluralism and complementarity. Perspect Biol Med. 2002; 45(3):338-49. PMID: 12114829.
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    378. McCullough LB. The accidental bioethicist. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2002; 11(4):359-68. PMID: 12360706.
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    379. Jones JW, McCullough LB. When to refer to another surgeon. J Vasc Surg. 2002 Jan; 35(1):192. PMID: 11802159.
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    380. McCullough LB. A framework for the ethically justified clinical management of intersex conditions. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002; 511:149-65; discussion 165-73. PMID: 12575761.
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    381. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Professionalism and justice: ethical management guidelines for leaders of academic medical centers. Acad Med. 2002 Jan; 77(1):45-7. PMID: 11788322.
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    382. Coverdale JH, McCullough LB, Chervenak FA. Enhancing decision-making by depressed pregnant patients. J Perinat Med. 2002; 30(4):349-51. PMID: 12235727.
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    383. McCullough LB. Power, integrity, and trust in the managed practice of medicine: lessons from the history of medical ethics. Soc Philos Policy. 2002; 19(2):180-211. PMID: 12678087.
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    384. McCullough LB. Ethical issues in the use of tumor markers in clinical investigation of the management of bladder cancer. Urol Oncol. 2002 Jan-Feb; 7(1):35-7. PMID: 12474539.
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    385. McCullough LB. Laying medicine open: understanding major turning points in the history of medical ethics. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 1999 Mar; 9(1):7-23. PMID: 11657315.
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    386. McCullough LB, Reich WT. Laying medicine open: innovative interaction between medicine and the humanities. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 1999 Mar; 9(1):1-5. PMID: 11657312.
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    387. Workman RH, Molinari V, Rezabek P, McCullough LB, Khalsa DK, Trivedi S, Kunik ME. An ethical framework for understanding patients with antisocial personality disorder who develop dementia: diagnosing and managing disorders of autonomy. J Ethics Law Aging. 1997 Fall-Winter; 3(2):79-90. PMID: 11656997.
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    388. McCullough LB. Bioethics in the twenty-first century: why we should pay attention to eighteenth-century medical ethics. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 1996 Dec; 6(4):329-33. PMID: 11645330.
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    389. McCullough LB, Winslade WJ. Why VHA should keep the door to physician-assisted suicide closed. NCCE News. 1996; 4(3):1-2, 9-11. PMID: 11654628.
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    390. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Ethical issues in recommending and offering fetal therapy. West J Med. 1993 Sep; 159(3):369-99. PMID: 11643180.
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    391. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Identifying and managing ethical conflict in the gynecologist-patient relationship. J Reprod Med. 1993 Jul; 38(7):533-7. PMID: 11643172.
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    392. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. Inadequacies with the ACOG and AAP statements on managing ethical conflict during the intrapartum period. J Clin Ethics. 1991; 2(1):23-4. PMID: 11642910.
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    393. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB. An ethically based standard of care for fetal therapy. J Matern Fetal Investig. 1991; 1:175-80. PMID: 11659969.
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    394. McCullough LB. The abstract character and transforming power of medical language. Soundings. 1989; 72(1):111-25. PMID: 11653860.
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    395. Dustan HP, Hamilton MP, McCullough LB, Page LB. Sociopolitical and ethical considerations in the treatment of cardiovascular disease in the elderly. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1987 Aug; 10(2):14A-7A. PMID: 11644009.
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    396. McCullough LB. Diminished competence and paternalism: introduction. Theor Med. 1983 Oct; 4(3):227-8. PMID: 11649529.
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    397. McCullough LB. Medical ethics in the future: commentary on Andre De Vries. Metamedicine. 1982 Feb; 3(1):129-33. PMID: 11651822.
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    398. McCullough LB, Christianson CE. Ethical dimensions of diagnosis: a case study and analysis. Metamedicine. 1981 Jun; 2(2):129-43. PMID: 11651658.
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    399. McCullough LB. Pluralism, philosophies of medicine and the varieties of medical ethics: a commentary on Thomasma and Pellegrino. Metamedicine. 1981 Feb; 2(1):13-7. PMID: 11650502.
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