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CHRISTINE BEETON

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionBaylor College of Medicine
DepartmentDepartment of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics
AddressOne Baylor Plaza
Houston TX 77030
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    1991Prize for scientific vocation, French Ministry of Women’s rights
    1998 - 2000Pre-doctoral Fellowship, French Multiple Sclerosis Society (Association pour la Recherche sur la Sclérose en Plaques)
    2001Dissertation Fellowship, French Medical Research Association (Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale)
    2001 - 2004Postdoctoral Fellowship , National Multiple Sclerosis Society
    2005Laverna Titus Award, American Heart Association
    2012Co-chair, session Toxins and Ion Channels, 17th World Congress of the International Society on Toxinology

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    Christine Beeton is an immunologist with an interest in autoimmunity and inflammation. She received a Bachelor and a Master of Science in Biochemistry from the Faculté des Sciences de Luminy within the Université de la Mediterranée in Marseille, France. She joined Dr. Evelyne Béraud’s group for her PhD in Immunology and then moved to the University of California, Irvine, to join Dr. K. George Chandy’s group in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics as a Postdoctoral Fellow in 2001. She was promoted to Assistant Researcher in 2006 and joined the faculty of the Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics at Baylor College of Medicine in 2008. In 2010 she assumed the role of Academic Director of the Cytometry and Cell Sorting Core for the Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center at Baylor College of Medicine.

    As a Graduate Student, Christine Beeton was the first to show the benefits of blocking Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 channels with the scorpion venom peptide kaliotoxin to prevent and treat adoptive acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. She went on showing, in collaboration with Drs. Chandy and Wulff, that encephalitogenic T lymphocytes express more Kv1.3 channels than naïve T lymphocytes do and that targeting Kv1.3 channels only with ShK-Dap22 was sufficient to treat this model of multiple sclerosis. As a Postdoctoral Fellow, she continued her collaborative work with Dr. Wulff who showed that terminally differentiated human CCR7- effector memory T (TEM) lymphocytes up-regulate Kv1.3 channels upon activation whereas CCR7+ naïve and central memory T (TCM) lymphocytes up-regulate KCa3.1 channels. She demonstrated a similar switch in potassium channel phenotype in rat, but not mouse, T lymphocytes. In collaboration with the groups of Drs. Nepom, Andrews, and Calabresi she showed that T lymphocyte isolated from the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis express high numbers of Kv1.3 channels. Through collaborative work with the groups of Drs. Pennington and Norton, she developed a novel analog of ShK, ShK-186 (now known as dalazatide), as a highly potent and selective blocker of Kv1.3 channels. ShK-186 preferentially inhibits human and rat TEM lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo and treats animal models of delayed type hypersensitivity, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma without preventing the clearance of acute viral or bacterial infections. Drs. Chandy, Beeton, and Pennington are inventors of a world-wide patent on ShK-186 and related compounds. This patent was licensed to Kineta, Inc. for the development of a new class of immunomodulators for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Phase 1a and 1b clinical trials in healthy volunteers have shown that ShK-196 is well tolerated.

    The Beeton Lab is interested in all aspects of translational research surrounding autoimmune and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Our expertise ranges from the isolation and culture of primary human and rodent cells (lymphocytes, monocyte/macrophages, and other immune cells; fibroblast-like synoviocytes; myoblasts), functional assays ex vivo (proliferation, production and secretion of cytokines, chemokines, proteases, migration, invasion, cytotoxicity, and more) and in vivo (trafficking, production and secretion of cytokines, chemokines, proteases, and more), patch-clamp electrophysiology on excitable and non-excitable cells for identification of ion channels and pharmacology of novel ion channel modulators, and animal models of inflammatory diseases in rats and mice (active and adoptive delayed type hypersensitivity, active and adoptive acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, chronic-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, collagen-induced arthritis, pristane-induced arthritis, and adjuvant-induced arthritis). Our current work revolves around two main topics: targeting potassium channels for the treatment of chronic diseases (multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 myotonic dystrophy) and using antioxidant nanomaterials for the treatment of T lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune diseases (multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis).

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    Immunology, inflammation, autoimmunity, immunomodulation, immunomodulator, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, ion channel, lymphocyte, synoviocyte.


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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Tajhya RB, Hu X, Tanner MR, Huq R, Kongchan N, Neilson JR, Rodney GG, Horrigan FT, Timchenko LT, Beeton C. Functional KCa1.1 channels are crucial for regulating the proliferation, migration and differentiation of human primary skeletal myoblasts. Cell Death Dis. 2016 Oct 20; 7(10):e2426. PMID: 27763639.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Fortune RD, Grill RJ, Beeton C, Tanner M, Huq R, Loose DS. Changes in gene expression and metabolism in the testes of the rat following spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2016 Oct 18. PMID: 27750479.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Huq R, Samuel EL, Sikkema WK, Nilewski LG, Lee T, Tanner MR, Khan FS, Porter PC, Tajhya RB, Patel RS, Inoue T, Pautler RG, Corry DB, Tour JM, Beeton C. Preferential uptake of antioxidant carbon nanoparticles by T lymphocytes for immunomodulation. Sci Rep. 2016; 6:33808. PMID: 27654170.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Petho Z, Tanner MR, Tajhya RB, Huq R, Laragione T, Panyi G, Gulko PS, Beeton C. Different expression of ß subunits of the KCa1.1 channel by invasive and non-invasive human fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Arthritis Res Ther. 2016; 18(1):103. PMID: 27165430; PMCID: PMC4863321.
    5. Vijayalakshmi Ayyar B, Tajhya RB, Beeton C, Zouhair Atassi M. Antigenic sites on the HN domain of botulinum neurotoxin A stimulate protective antibody responses against active toxin. Sci Rep. 2015; 5:15776. PMID: 26508475.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Chang SC, Huq R, Chhabra S, Beeton C, Pennington MW, Smith BJ, Norton RS. N-Terminally extended analogues of the K? channel toxin from Stichodactyla helianthus as potent and selective blockers of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3. FEBS J. 2015 Jun; 282(12):2247-59. PMID: 25864722; PMCID: PMC4472561.
    7. Laragione T, Cheng KF, Tanner MR, He M, Beeton C, Al-Abed Y, Gulko PS. The cation channel Trpv2 is a new suppressor of arthritis severity, joint damage, and synovial fibroblast invasion. Clin Immunol. 2015 Jun; 158(2):183-92. PMID: 25869297; PMCID: PMC4617367.
    8. Norton RS, Pennington MW, Beeton C. Venoms to drugs: Venom as a source for the development of human therapeutics, G.F. King, Editor. Transforming a toxin into a therapeutic: the sea anemone potassium channel blocker ShK toxin for treatment of autoimmune diseases. 2015.
    9. Lee CS, Dagnino-Acosta A, Yarotskyy V, Hanna A, Lyfenko A, Knoblauch M, Georgiou DK, Poché RA, Swank MW, Long C, Ismailov II, Lanner J, Tran T, Dong K, Rodney GG, Dickinson ME, Beeton C, Zhang P, Dirksen RT, Hamilton SL. Ca(2+) permeation and/or binding to CaV1.1 fine-tunes skeletal muscle Ca(2+) signaling to sustain muscle function. Skelet Muscle. 2015; 5:4. PMID: 25717360; PMCID: PMC4340672.
    10. Pennington MW, Chang SC, Chauhan S, Huq R, Tajhya RB, Chhabra S, Norton RS, Beeton C. Development of highly selective Kv1.3-blocking peptides based on the sea anemone peptide ShK. Mar Drugs. 2015 Jan; 13(1):529-42. PMID: 25603346; PMCID: PMC4306950.
    11. Tanner MR, Hu X, Huq R, Tajhya RB, Sun L, Khan FS, Laragione T, Horrigan FT, Gulko PS, Beeton C. KCa1.1 inhibition attenuates fibroblast-like synoviocyte invasiveness and ameliorates disease in rat models of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Jan; 67(1):96-106. PMID: 25252152; PMCID: PMC4280298.
    12. Ge L, Hoa NT, Wilson Z, Arismendi-Morillo G, Kong XT, Tajhya RB, Beeton C, Jadus MR. Big Potassium (BK) ion channels in biology, disease and possible targets for cancer immunotherapy. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Oct; 22(2):427-43. PMID: 25027630.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Chhabra S, Chang SC, Nguyen HM, Huq R, Tanner MR, Londono LM, Estrada R, Dhawan V, Chauhan S, Upadhyay SK, Gindin M, Hotez PJ, Valenzuela JG, Mohanty B, Swarbrick JD, Wulff H, Iadonato SP, Gutman GA, Beeton C, Pennington MW, Norton RS, Chandy KG. Kv1.3 channel-blocking immunomodulatory peptides from parasitic worms: implications for autoimmune diseases. FASEB J. 2014 Sep; 28(9):3952-64. PMID: 24891519; PMCID: PMC4139903.
    14. Hoa NT, Ge L, Tajhya RB, Beeton C, Cornforth AN, Abolhoda A, Lambrecht N, DaCosta-Iyer M, Ouyang Y, Mai AP, Hong E, Shon J, Hickey MJ, Erickson KL, Kruse CA, Jadus MR. Small cell lung cancer cells express the late stage gBK tumor antigen: a possible immunotarget for the terminal disease. Am J Transl Res. 2014; 6(3):188-205. PMID: 24936214; PMCID: PMC4058303.
    15. Rashid MH, Huq R, Tanner MR, Chhabra S, Khoo KK, Estrada R, Dhawan V, Chauhan S, Pennington MW, Beeton C, Kuyucak S, Norton RS. A potent and Kv1.3-selective analogue of the scorpion toxin HsTX1 as a potential therapeutic for autoimmune diseases. Sci Rep. 2014; 4:4509. PMID: 24676092; PMCID: PMC3968461.
    16. Koshy S, Huq R, Tanner MR, Atik MA, Porter PC, Khan FS, Pennington MW, Hanania NA, Corry DB, Beeton C. Blocking KV1.3 channels inhibits Th2 lymphocyte function and treats a rat model of asthma. J Biol Chem. 2014 May 2; 289(18):12623-32. PMID: 24644290; PMCID: PMC4007452.
    17. Panyi G, Beeton C, Felipe A. Ion channels and anti-cancer immunity. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2014 Mar 19; 369(1638):20130106. PMID: 24493754; PMCID: PMC3917360.
    18. Rashid MH, Heinzelmann G, Huq R, Tajhya RB, Chang SC, Chhabra S, Pennington MW, Beeton C, Norton RS, Kuyucak S. A potent and selective peptide blocker of the Kv1.3 channel: prediction from free-energy simulations and experimental confirmation. PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e78712. PMID: 24244345; PMCID: PMC3820677.
    19. Koshy S, Wu D, Hu X, Tajhya RB, Huq R, Khan FS, Pennington MW, Wulff H, Yotnda P, Beeton C. Blocking KCa3.1 channels increases tumor cell killing by a subpopulation of human natural killer lymphocytes. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e76740. PMID: 24146918; PMCID: PMC3795664.
    20. Beeton C. The handbook of peptides, 2nd edition, A.J. Kastin, Editor. Targets and therapeutic properties of venom peptides. 2013; ISBN 978-0-12-385095-9.
    21. Anangi R, Koshy S, Huq R, Beeton C, Chuang WJ, King GF. Recombinant expression of margatoxin and agitoxin-2 in Pichia pastoris: an efficient method for production of KV1.3 channel blockers. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e52965. PMID: 23300835; PMCID: PMC3530466.
    22. Pennington MW, Harunur Rashid M, Tajhya RB, Beeton C, Kuyucak S, Norton RS. A C-terminally amidated analogue of ShK is a potent and selective blocker of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3. FEBS Lett. 2012 Nov 16; 586(22):3996-4001. PMID: 23063513; PMCID: PMC3496055.
    23. Chang SC, Galea CA, Leung EW, Tajhya RB, Beeton C, Pennington MW, Norton RS. Expression and isotopic labelling of the potassium channel blocker ShK toxin as a thioredoxin fusion protein in bacteria. Toxicon. 2012 Oct; 60(5):840-50. PMID: 22659540; PMCID: PMC3411878.
    24. Tarcha EJ, Chi V, Muñoz-Elías EJ, Bailey D, Londono LM, Upadhyay SK, Norton K, Banks A, Tjong I, Nguyen H, Hu X, Ruppert GW, Boley SE, Slauter R, Sams J, Knapp B, Kentala D, Hansen Z, Pennington MW, Beeton C, Chandy KG, Iadonato SP. Durable pharmacological responses from the peptide ShK-186, a specific Kv1.3 channel inhibitor that suppresses T cell mediators of autoimmune disease. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012 Sep; 342(3):642-53. PMID: 22637724; PMCID: PMC3422530.
    25. Varga Z, Gurrola-Briones G, Papp F, Rodríguez de la Vega RC, Pedraza-Alva G, Tajhya RB, Gaspar R, Cardenas L, Rosenstein Y, Beeton C, Possani LD, Panyi G. Vm24, a natural immunosuppressive peptide, potently and selectively blocks Kv1.3 potassium channels of human T cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2012 Sep; 82(3):372-82. PMID: 22622363; PMCID: PMC3422703.
    26. Hu X, Laragione T, Sun L, Koshy S, Jones KR, Ismailov II, Yotnda P, Horrigan FT, Gulko PS, Beeton C. KCa1.1 potassium channels regulate key proinflammatory and invasive properties of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. J Biol Chem. 2012 Feb 3; 287(6):4014-22. PMID: 22074915; PMCID: PMC3281680.
    27. Beeton C, Pennington MW, Norton RS. Analogs of the sea anemone potassium channel blocker ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2011 Oct; 10(5):313-21. PMID: 21824083; PMCID: PMC3398462.
    28. Chi V, Pennington MW, Norton RS, Tarcha EJ, Londono LM, Sims-Fahey B, Upadhyay SK, Lakey JT, Iadonato S, Wulff H, Beeton C, Chandy KG. Development of a sea anemone toxin as an immunomodulator for therapy of autoimmune diseases. Toxicon. 2012 Mar 15; 59(4):529-46. PMID: 21867724; PMCID: PMC3397671.
    29. Mkhikian H, Grigorian A, Li CF, Chen HL, Newton B, Zhou RW, Beeton C, Torossian S, Tatarian GG, Lee SU, Lau K, Walker E, Siminovitch KA, Chandy KG, Yu Z, Dennis JW, Demetriou M. Genetics and the environment converge to dysregulate N-glycosylation in multiple sclerosis. Nat Commun. 2011; 2:334. PMID: 21629267; PMCID: PMC3133923.
    30. Hu X, Beeton C. Detection of functional matrix metalloproteinases by zymography. J Vis Exp. 2010; (45). PMID: 21085107; PMCID: PMC3159606.
    31. Koshy S, Alizadeh P, Timchenko LT, Beeton C. Quantitative measurement of GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane by flow cytometry. J Vis Exp. 2010; (45). PMID: 21085106; PMCID: PMC3159605.
    32. Pennington MW, Beeton C, Galea CA, Smith BJ, Chi V, Monaghan KP, Garcia A, Rangaraju S, Giuffrida A, Plank D, Crossley G, Nugent D, Khaytin I, Lefievre Y, Peshenko I, Dixon C, Chauhan S, Orzel A, Inoue T, Hu X, Moore RV, Norton RS, Chandy KG. Engineering a stable and selective peptide blocker of the Kv1.3 channel in T lymphocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Apr; 75(4):762-73. PMID: 19122005; PMCID: PMC2684922.
    33. Matheu MP, Beeton C, Garcia A, Chi V, Rangaraju S, Safrina O, Monaghan K, Uemura MI, Li D, Pal S, de la Maza LM, Monuki E, Flügel A, Pennington MW, Parker I, Chandy KG, Cahalan MD. Imaging of effector memory T cells during a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and suppression by Kv1.3 channel block. Immunity. 2008 Oct 17; 29(4):602-14. PMID: 18835197; PMCID: PMC2732399.
    34. Matheu MP, Beeton C, Parker I, Chandy KG, D Cahalan M. Imaging effector memory T cells in the ear after induction of adoptive DTH. J Vis Exp. 2008; (18). PMID: 19066497; PMCID: PMC3253563.
    35. Beeton C, Chandy KG. Isolation of mononuclear cells from the central nervous system of rats with EAE. J Vis Exp. 2007; (10):527. PMID: 18989401; PMCID: PMC2557079.
    36. Beeton C. Discovery on Target 2007--CHI's Fifth Annual Conference. Ion channels. IDrugs. 2007 Dec; 10(12):851-4. PMID: 18041678.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Beeton C, Smith BJ, Sabo JK, Crossley G, Nugent D, Khaytin I, Chi V, Chandy KG, Pennington MW, Norton RS. The D-diastereomer of ShK toxin selectively blocks voltage-gated K+ channels and inhibits T lymphocyte proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jan 11; 283(2):988-97. PMID: 17984097.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Beeton C, Chandy KG. Preparing T cell growth factor from rat splenocytes. J Vis Exp. 2007; (10):402. PMID: 18989399; PMCID: PMC2557076.
    39. Beeton C, Chandy KG. Enrichment of NK cells from human blood with the RosetteSep kit from StemCell technologies. J Vis Exp. 2007; (8):326. PMID: 18989426; PMCID: PMC2562500.
    40. Beeton C, Chandy KG. Induction and monitoring of adoptive delayed-type hypersensitivity in rats. J Vis Exp. 2007; (8). PMID: 19252470; PMCID: PMC2956222.
    41. Beeton C, Garcia A, Chandy KG. Drawing blood from rats through the saphenous vein and by cardiac puncture. J Vis Exp. 2007; (7):266. PMID: 18989437; PMCID: PMC2565848.
    42. Beeton C, Chandy KG. Induction and monitoring of active delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in rats. J Vis Exp. 2007; (6):237. PMID: 18997885; PMCID: PMC2557114.
    43. Beeton C, Garcia A, Chandy KG. Induction and clinical scoring of chronic-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Vis Exp. 2007; (5):224. PMID: 18979022; PMCID: PMC2557091.
    44. Beeton C, Wulff H, Standifer NE, Azam P, Mullen KM, Pennington MW, Kolski-Andreaco A, Wei E, Grino A, Counts DR, Wang PH, LeeHealey CJ, S Andrews B, Sankaranarayanan A, Homerick D, Roeck WW, Tehranzadeh J, Stanhope KL, Zimin P, Havel PJ, Griffey S, Knaus HG, Nepom GT, Gutman GA, Calabresi PA, Chandy KG. Kv1.3 channels are a therapeutic target for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 14; 103(46):17414-9. PMID: 17088564; PMCID: PMC1859943.
    45. Wulff H, Beeton C, Calabresi PA, Gutman GA, Pennington MW, Chandy KG . Voltage-gated ion channels as drug targets, D.J. Triggle, M. Gopalakrishnan, D. Rampe, Editors. The Kv1.3 potassium channel: physiology, pharmacology and therapeutic indications. 2006; ISBN 3-527-31258-7.
    46. Beeton C, Gutman GA, Chandy KG. The handbook of peptides, A.J. Kastin, Editor. Targets and therapeutic properties of venom peptides. 2006; ISBN 0123694426 .
    47. Chandy KG, Beeton C, Pennington MW. Analogs of ShK toxin and their uses in selective inhibition of Kv1.3 potassium channels. 2006.
    48. Beeton C, Chandy KG. Potassium channels, memory T cells, and multiple sclerosis. Neuroscientist. 2005 Dec; 11(6):550-62. PMID: 16282596.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Carrega L, Mosbah A, Ferrat G, Beeton C, Andreotti N, Mansuelle P, Darbon H, De Waard M, Sabatier JM. The impact of the fourth disulfide bridge in scorpion toxins of the alpha-KTx6 subfamily. Proteins. 2005 Dec 1; 61(4):1010-23. PMID: 16247791.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Rus H, Pardo CA, Hu L, Darrah E, Cudrici C, Niculescu T, Niculescu F, Mullen KM, Allie R, Guo L, Wulff H, Beeton C, Judge SI, Kerr DA, Knaus HG, Chandy KG, Calabresi PA. The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 is highly expressed on inflammatory infiltrates in multiple sclerosis brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 2; 102(31):11094-9. PMID: 16043714; PMCID: PMC1182417.
    51. Beeton C, Pennington MW, Wulff H, Singh S, Nugent D, Crossley G, Khaytin I, Calabresi PA, Chen CY, Gutman GA, Chandy KG. Targeting effector memory T cells with a selective peptide inhibitor of Kv1.3 channels for therapy of autoimmune diseases. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Apr; 67(4):1369-81. PMID: 15665253; PMCID: PMC4275123.
    52. Regaya I, Beeton C, Ferrat G, Andreotti N, Darbon H, De Waard M, Sabatier JM. Evidence for domain-specific recognition of SK and Kv channels by MTX and HsTx1 scorpion toxins. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 31; 279(53):55690-6. PMID: 15498765.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Vennekamp J, Wulff H, Beeton C, Calabresi PA, Grissmer S, Hänsel W, Chandy KG. Kv1.3-blocking 5-phenylalkoxypsoralens: a new class of immunomodulators. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Jun; 65(6):1364-74. PMID: 15155830.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Chandy KG, Wulff H, Beeton C, Pennington M, Gutman GA, Cahalan MD. K+ channels as targets for specific immunomodulation. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2004 May; 25(5):280-9. PMID: 15120495; PMCID: PMC2749963.
    55. Devaux J, Beeton C, Béraud E, Crest M. [Ion channels and demyelination: basis of a treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by potassium channel blockers]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2004 May; 160(5 Pt 2):S16-27. PMID: 15269656.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Wulff H, Beeton C, Chandy KG. Potassium channels as therapeutic targets for autoimmune disorders. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep; 6(5):640-7. PMID: 14579513.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Wulff H, Calabresi PA, Allie R, Yun S, Pennington M, Beeton C, Chandy KG. The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K(+) channel in effector memory T cells as new target for MS. J Clin Invest. 2003 Jun; 111(11):1703-13. PMID: 12782673; PMCID: PMC156104.
    58. Devaux J, Forni C, Beeton C, Barbaria J, Béraud E, Gola M, Crest M. Myelin basic protein-reactive T cells induce conduction failure in vivo but not in vitro. Neuroreport. 2003 Mar 3; 14(3):317-20. PMID: 12634475.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Beeton C, Wulff H, Singh S, Botsko S, Crossley G, Gutman GA, Cahalan MD, Pennington M, Chandy KG. A novel fluorescent toxin to detect and investigate Kv1.3 channel up-regulation in chronically activated T lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 2003 Mar 14; 278(11):9928-37. PMID: 12511563.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Béraud E, Devaux J, Beeton C, Clot-Faybesse O, Barbaria J, Crest M. Ion channels and physiopathologies of nerve conduction and cell proliferation, B. Rouzaire-Dubois, E. Benoit & J.M. Dubois, Editors. Potassium channel blockers modify central nervous conduction, inhibit T-lymphocyte proliferation, and improve experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. 2002; ISBN 81-7736-135-X.
    61. Beeton C, Wulff H, Barbaria J, Clot-Faybesse O, Pennington M, Bernard D, Cahalan MD, Chandy KG, Béraud E. Selective blockade of T lymphocyte K(+) channels ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Nov 20; 98(24):13942-7. PMID: 11717451; PMCID: PMC61146.
    62. Beeton C, Barbaria J, Giraud P, Devaux J, Benoliel AM, Gola M, Sabatier JM, Bernard D, Crest M, Béraud E. Selective blocking of voltage-gated K+ channels improves experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and inhibits T cell activation. J Immunol. 2001 Jan 15; 166(2):936-44. PMID: 11145670.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Beeton C. Potassium channel blockers: immunosuppressive properties and therapy of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. 2001.
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